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SNAPSHOT - PHOTO NEWS FROM BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to SnapShot, the weekly newsletter on
the art of photography from
BetterPhoto.com


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IN THIS ISSUE - Tuesday, December 06, 2005
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* SPOTLIGHT: BetterPhoto's Online School: New Courses for Winter!
* BETTERPHOTO: Member Survey: Help Us Make BetterPhoto.com Even Better!
* BETTERPHOTO: New Designs for BetterPhoto's Deluxe BetterPholios™
* BETTERPHOTO: Book of Month: George Schaub's Digital Black and White Printing
* FEATURED GALLERY: Focus on Pictures of Automobiles
* PHOTO TRIVIA QUESTION: Ditigal Timeline / Full Metal Photography
* THIS WEEK'S TIP: Lighting Ratios ... by Charlie Borland
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 1: What Lens Do I Need?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 2: JPEG Vs. Tiff Confusion
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 3: Selling the Rights to a Photo
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 4: Wedding Photography: No Photos During Ceremony?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 5: Weather Factors and Camera Gear
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 6: Photographing in an Aquarium
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 7: Choosing a Lens for Portraiture
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 8: Enlargements Vs. Screensavers
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 9: Camera Batteries
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 10: Client's Request for Photos on CD
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 1: Picturing People Wearing Eyeglasses


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IN THE SPOTLIGHT - ADVERTISEMENT
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BetterPhoto's Online School: New Courses for Winter!
Our next session at BetterPhoto.com™ is shaping up to be our most comprehensive ever, with such new classes as Robin Nichols's Adobe Photoshop Elements, Peter Burian's Mastering the Digital Camera and Photography, Paul Gero's Digital Wedding Photography, and Kerry Drager's Creative Light and Composition. See these and other courses at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/online-photography-courses.asp


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WHAT'S NEW AT BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to the 241st issue of SnapShot!

Hi {FirstName}

At BetterPhoto this holiday season, we are having such a great time gearing up for another awesome session of online classes. Winter is a beautiful time for photography - some scenes with pristine new snow, other scenes dancing with dramatic weather, and still others crisp and clear. Could there be a better time to have a professional photographer motivating you to get out the door with your camera? Check out our courses at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/online-photography-courses.asp

And just in time for the holidays are our all-new Deluxe BetterPholio™ designs ... what a great way to display your photography! For details, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/deluxe-photographer-websites.asp

Are you a subscriber to Photo of the Day? You should be ... it's our free daily showcase of creativity! The excellent images are selected from our monthly photo contest. To subscribe, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/subscribe.asp

In this issue of Snapshot, don't miss another superb Photo Tip on lighting by instructor Charlie Borland, plus our gallery on auto photos and our usual collection of excellent questions and answers.

That's it for now. Have a great week of photography!
Jim Miotke
http://www.betterphoto.com/MG.asp?ID=124


*****
Member Survey: Help Us Make BetterPhoto.com Even Better!
If you haven't already, please take the time - just minutes, actually - to participate in our new survey. Your input will help us refine BetterPhoto by identifying improvements and additions you'd like to see. Go to:
http://www.surveymonkey.com/s.asp?u=25241557348


*****
New Designs for BetterPhoto's Deluxe BetterPholios™
Our redesigned BetterPhoto Deluxe BetterPholios™ offer beautiful and functional design and easy Web hosting – at a great price! Give yourself the gift of a Web site this holiday season! (Note: If you already own a Deluxe BetterPholio™, you can either convert to the new designs - at no cost to you - or keep your current design. Check the notice in your Admin Center.) For more Deluxe BetterPholio™ details:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/deluxe-photographer-websites.asp


*****
Book of Month: George Schaub's Digital Black and White Printing
Our online store showcases the fantastic books and DVDs from BetterPhoto instructors. For December, we put the spotlight on George Schaub's awesome book, Amphoto's Guide to Digital Black and White Printing. If you buy this fine book before the end of December, you will receive free U.S. shipping. Best yet, it's autographed by George! For details, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/product/ourProductDetailLg.asp?productID=1353

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FEATURED GALLERY
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Focus on Pictures of Automobiles
Whether cool classics or modern models, automobiles are among the more popular photo subjects here at BetterPhoto.com. But most of the creative images in our gallery zero in not only on the overall look but also on the eye-catching details - the bold lines, shiny chrome, and great curves. View this gallery at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGall2.asp?catID=249

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PHOTO TRIVIA QUIZ OF THE WEEK
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Last week, we asked:
In what year was the first patent filed for a filmless electronic camera?
Extra Credit (optional): What is the name of the company that filed the patent?

The first, best answer - entered by BetterPhoto member Howie Nordström is:
Texas Instruments patented a filmless electronic camera in 1972.

See Howie's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=108744

To see all answers to this question, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp?stat=PRV

And Now... This Week's Photo Trivia Question - Full Metal Photography - entered by BetterPhoto member Kerry Drager

One of the stars in Stanley Kubrick's 1987 film, "Full Metal Jacket", recently published a photo-essay book about the making of this classic war movie. Who is the actor?

Submit your own answer to this question by visiting:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp

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THIS WEEK'S PHOTO TIP
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Lighting Ratios ... by Charlie Borland

This would be an irrelevant measurement if film and digital could see what our eye sees, but they don't. So we must first understand the capabilities of the film and digital we use and what range these mediums are capable of handling. When using multiple lights, you have a key, or main light, and a fill light. You measure the difference between these two lights by using light ratios, which are measured by the difference in brightness between highlight and shadow. Since the key light is always the brighter, a 2:1 ratio means the key light side of your subject has twice the amount of light, or 1 more f/stop in value, than the fill side. This ratio is the most commonly used when shooting basic portraits. You can increase the contrast on your subject by adjusting your lights to a 3:1 ratio. The shadow side of the subject would be 1.5 stops darker than the key side and 4:1 would be two stops darker.

View Charlie Borland's online photography courses:



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ADVERTISEMENT
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Absolute Beginner's Guide to Taking Great Photos
My new book guides you away from the point-and-pray method of taking pictures to shooting with confidence. In this simple and clear how-to book, you will learn:
  • How to compose your picture with a more artful eye
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BetterPhoto.com
P.O. Box 2781
Redmond, WA 98073-2781 USA

To order online, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/product/ourProductDetail.asp?productID=1096


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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - NEW THIS WEEK
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NEW QUESTION 1: What Lens Do I Need?
I own a Canon EOS 300D and have the EFS 18-55mm lens. I want to purchase a telephoto and wide-angle lens. I would like to know what the best lenses and which brands will fit on the EOS 300D? I've done some research but would like to hear from some of the BetterPhoto members. Thanks!!
- Terri Scribner

See Terri's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 1:
Terry, without some further information from you, this is a very open-ended question. The key issues are a) what kind of photography do you think you'll want to do? and b) what's your budget?
Brand-wise - besides Canon - Sigma, Tokina and Tamron all make lenses that work with Canon bodies. These "third party" lenses are generally less expensive, but some are actually as good as the "branded" counterparts from Canon or Nikon.
But, depending on what you're trying to do, the answer after that can only be "it depends". For the telephoto - what makes you want one? Sports shots (of the kids)? Nature shots of black bears in the woods? Birding? Do you want the convenience of a zoom lens (that's one that has variable focal lengths, like your 18-55) or a prime length lens. Sometimes the latter type can be less costly, or faster (like a 300MM f2.8).
On the wide side, the 18MM is already pretty wide; there aren't a lot of choices to "go wider".
Anyway, perhaps it would be best to discern what kind of shooting you want to do, and then figure out what kind of equipment you'll need. For landscapes, maybe the 18-55 will be fine, but you should get a tripod.
- Bob

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=20986

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http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=20986

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NEW QUESTION 2: JPEG Vs. Tiff Confusion
So I understand the degradation that happens when you save a photo as a JPEG each time. Here's when I'm not sure what would happen. I shoot in the highest-quality JPEG I can (no software for Raw yet). Then if I edit that JPEG and save it as a TIFF in Photoshop, does anything happen to it? What about when I then save that TIFF back as a JPEG? Does it do any good to save my original file as a TIFF until I absolutely need to have a JPEG, or does it not matter since it was shot in JPEG? Hope that made sense, thanks for the info!
- Lynsey Lund

ANSWER 1:
Lynsey,
Actual visible degradation in JPEGs would take a lot, maybe hundreds, of saves. However, it would be a good practice to shoot highest-quality JPEG and save as TIFF before any editing. You can theoretically edit and save the TIFF an unlimited number of times without losing quality other than what you introduce by editing, i.e. oversharpening. Convert back to JPEG when you want to print, for instance, with no loss of quality.
A major factor to consider is the storage capacity of your computer or back-up device as TIFF files are very large.
John
- John R. Rhodes

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Visit backbayscenes.com - John's Deluxe BetterPholio™

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NEW QUESTION 3: Selling the Rights to a Photo
I have been asked to sell the rights to a photo. I shot the photo at a concert. The image is of the artist. He has asked me what I would sell the usage rights for. What would you charge? The artist in the photo is considering making a poster from the image, with graphic alterations at his discretion. The artist is not a hugely popular or overly rich, but he's not unknown.
Please help me give an accurate/reasonable price quote ... many thanks. (If it doesn't load here, I'll post the image in my gallery - titled Intervention.)
- Jay Soldner

See Sample Photo - intervention:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGallDetail.asp?photoID=1529800

ANSWER 1:
Greetings, Jay. Usage rights versus all rights are two different things. Generally, when considering what to charge for usage, you need to consider (among other things) whether the photo has been published before (like First North American publishing rights); whether they'll print your photo credit; size of the poster; how much giving them unlimited discretion to modify the image is worth to you; and the value of the photo to the potential user and you. In this case, unless you have a model release from this fellow, your own use of the photo is significantly limited in terms of publishing; you also need to consider the press run - i.e., how many posters, what he intends to use them for (like enclosures in a marketing campaign or a magazine insert); whether he wants all the usage rights, including publicity releases (media kits), the illustrating of articles about him (like in Rolling Stone), etc.; and AND whether you continue to have the rights (after he signs a model release) to use the photo for your own purposes, like stock photography. Easy, no??

As to price: After you've considered these factors, among others you may come up with, how much is strictly up to you. You can look around the Advertising Photographers of America Web site for a cost survey done a few years ago among our members. That may help get you seated better in the ball park, so-to-speak. ;>)
Take it light.
Mark
- Mark Feldstein

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NEW QUESTION 4: Wedding Photography: No Photos During Ceremony?
I have a wedding next weekend, and pastor has said "No photography" during ceremony. So I am just curious as to how much of it I should stage afterwards. We only have about an hour to an hour and a half afterwards, and we are doing bride and groom alone and with party and family then as well. I have asked the bride to think about what the important shots to her are, and I will think also, but I don't want to leave something out. Thanks
- Tonya Cozart

ANSWER 1:
Tonya, just a quick thought. I've had more and more couples liking the idea of shooting as many photos as possible before the wedding. What I now do is offer to do the shots of the groom and his side of the wedding party. Scoot them out. Bring in the bride and her side of the wedding party do their shots. Bring the guys back, except the groom, and do any shots of the bride with the groomsmen or bridesmaids coupled with groomsmen, ring bearer and flower girl, etc. Bride and her parents/siblings. Groom and parents/siblings. Anything that can be shot ahead of time so that the bride and groom can get to their guests and the reception sooner. So far, this has been a huge success. It requires everyone to be at the church and ready a little bit earlier, but it gets it all done quicker and more smoothly, and the bride and groom don't get as stressed. This will leave time for re-enactment shots and then all the typical group shots. Hope this helps a little.
- Liza M. Franco

ANSWER 2:
If just one guest pops up and shoots a point-and-shoot with flash, game's on and I ignore what the pastor, priest, or other clergy wants. My allegiance is to my client, not to the clergy. I am respectful, but my respect wears thin when the rules only apply to the PROFESSIONAL photographers.
- Jerry Frazier

ANSWER 3:
Maybe the pastor objects to the disturbance of flash photography. What if you sat in the back, used a long lens and natural light, and took pictures? Would he have a problem with that? It would also let you get a good picture of the bride and groom walking down the aisle together after the ceremony.
- John Clifford

ANSWER 4:
I wondered the same things myself. I asked the bride if it was NONE or just flash and she said none. Go figure. I may be prepared to shoot if someone else goes to taking them, though. I guess I will see how I feel about that, but I thought of it, too. Hey Liza, good suggestion on the staged photos. I did not mention it, but I will have 1 to 2 hours before the ceremony for photos, I will get everything in that I can without the bride and groom together, then after I will shoot them together alone and then with party and families. I am just wondering about any photos we need to re-create, like the bride being given away (yes!) and "the kiss" ... but how far do you go at re-creating these?
- Tonya Cozart

ANSWER 5:
Is this common? I've never attended a wedding where there was no photography during the ceremony. I've seen a few photographers who will turn off their flash during the ceremony. But this just seems extreme.
- Chris A. Vedros

See Chris's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 6:
Chris, it's not common, but it does happen. Happened to me last year. It was ridiculous.
But, Tonya, don't take the bride's word for it; call the place and have a chat with the clergy about it. I can often turn the hard-nosed types into seeing it my way. The clergy has problems these days with holding that strong of a line. How many brides are going to book them if they act that way? Weddings bring in big money for the churches, etc. Once word gets out that they are that strict, no one will want to get married there.
Jerry
- Jerry Frazier

ANSWER 7:
Why not ask the bride her opinion? She knew about the rule when she planned her wedding there. She might agree with the clergy. Another thought is to also talk to the clergy. If you ignore the rule, as Jerry suggests, you may not get the chance to go back to a wedding at that church.
- Donna Kilcher

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ANSWER 8:
Also it depends on what type of camera you have. If it's quiet enough, how's he/she to hear you in the back like someone else mentioned? I had an Elan and that was deadly quiet. Many times I'd shoot Ashley from 7-8 feet away, and she couldn't hear the shutter or film advance. Be respectful, obviously, but you gotta warn the bride that her pics might not hold that same feeling as the real ceremony. No matter how good you are, re-enacting a scene just won't have that same feeling. I'm not saying don't do it, by all means DO, but just warn the bride that this is gonna be a hard feat. Have fun and good luck!
- Justin D. Goeden

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=20977

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http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=20977

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*****


NEW QUESTION 5: Weather Factors and Camera Gear
I read somewhere that you have to put your camera equipment in plastic bags when you are taking it from a warm area to a cold area. Is this true, and is there an alternative?
Thank you ...
- Jeffrey Ufberg

See Jeffrey's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 1:
Hot to cold, cold to hot, dry to humid. In a Zip-Loc or sealed non-porous bag, the camera has time to warm up or cool down without condensation forming on it.
Alternative ... bring a mop ... :-)
Bob
- Bob Cournoyer

See Bob's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 2:
Warm-to-cold isn't all that critical. It's the reverse that could cause condensation to form immediately, first on exposed lenses and then on moisture-sensitive internal parts. When coming inside from a really cold environment, the Zip-Loc bag trick will work to prevent this. Just be sure that the bag is close to the temperature of your equipment before you seal it and bring your gear indoors.
The container and what's inside must come up to temperature equally. Whatever condensation DOES occur will happen on the outside of the bag ... not on your expensive equipment.
- Bob Cammarata

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ANSWER 3:
Thanks, didn't think about the temperature of the bag!
Bob
- Bob Cournoyer

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Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
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NEW QUESTION 6: Photographing in an Aquarium
I need tips for photographing at an indoor aquarium. I use the Canon Digital Rebel user-75-300mm zoom. Should flash be used? How high an ISO rating? How to avoid reflections from glass? Thanks.
- Elizabeth Locke

ANSWER 1:
Use at least 400 ISO. And, to avoid reflection, get as close to the glass as you can (right ON it, if possible). They say you can use flash if you're right up on the glass, but I never have.
- Carolyn Fletcher

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ANSWER 2:
I took photos in an indoor aquarium with my older Sony DSC 85 digital. I had it on auto with the flash off. The only thing I did was to point the camera to focus at a distant point and then I brought it over and took the photo through the glass ... no reflections at all.
I will put up a sample for you to see ... if it doesn't appear, I have the same one in my gallery ... and you can see it there.
Margie
- Margie Heldt

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
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*****


NEW QUESTION 7: Choosing a Lens for Portraiture
Hello,
I am interested in a digital SLR for taking pictures of my baby, and possibly turning it into a business eventually. I am looking into the Minolta Maxxum 5D. I'm wondering what lens to buy. The kit lens seems to be the Minolta 18-70 mm, but I've seen another offer with the Sigma 28-200 macro. I have heard something about the focal lengths being different on digital. I'm interested in taking mostly close-up photos of little ones, including hands, ears, lips, and so on, but also entire body shots. Suggestions? Thanks very much.
- Alison E. Copeland

ANSWER 1:
Hi, Alison. Portraiture is typically done with a slightly longer than "normal", or telephoto, lens. This gives what most viewers see as the most pleasing effect insofar as facial features. Long telephoto lenses flatten perspective and so make a face too "2 dimensional", and wide-angle lenses, when used close enough to fill the frame with the head and shoulders, exaggerate the distances from the tip of the nose to the cheeks.
Anyway, what constitutes a "normal" lens depends on the size of the film or chip being used to take the image. On a 4x5 view camera, a lens of 150 MM focal length is considered normal. On a 35MM film camera, a lens of 50MM focal length is considered normal. And for the APS-sized chip in most DSLRs, something more like a 35MM lens would be considered normal. That is, in all cases, these len/camera combinations will provide the same angle of view, so photos taken from the exact same spot will look more-or-less the same.
Now, what you heard about the focal lengths being different is due to the fact that the digital chip is smaller than the size of a 35MM film exposure. Since most folks are familiar with 35MM nowadays, manufacturers like to talk about "equivalent" focal lengths with point-and-shoot cameras, but for interchangeable lens models they just tell you a "magnification factor". Say the factor for the Minolta is 1.5 - this means that a 35MM lens on that camera is about equivalent in field of view to a (35 x 1.5 =) 52.5MM lens on a film model. So, if 35MM is "normal" for the DSLR, then a 50-60MM lens is a short telephoto, the type usually used for portraiture.
That said, the other thing to consider is lens speed - how fast it is. The larger the aperture (the smaller the f-stop number), the less depth of field the lens provides. So one of those zoom lenses at 50MM setting is about f2.8 or so, while a prime (non-zoom) 50MM lens can be f1.4 or so. The numbers don't seem very different, but they can have a big effect on a shot.
Think of a portrait shot you like - typically the face (especially the eyes) is in razor sharp focus, but the wall behind the subject is out of focus. This is due to the narrow depth of field. If a slower aperture is used (even setting the f1.4 lens to f2.8 or f4) then that background might become rather sharply focused as well, and this may distract from the main subject (the face).
So, perhaps, for typical portrait work, your best bet will be to find a 50MM f1.4 lens and use that wide open. Of course, with digital you can experiment without fearing the cost of film and all, and so you want to find a style of your own.
I hope that helps ...
- Bob

ANSWER 2:
Alison, I have a Canon 20D and use a 70-200 mm lens for portraits.
Gary
- Gary Berger

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*****


NEW QUESTION 8: Enlargements Vs. Screensavers
Here is the thing ... I have recently started a portrait business and have been successful. A customer who purchased a substantial amount of enlargements is now demanding his digital images for screensavers. Is there any way I can provide images for screensavers at a low resolution and still protect the images from being printed at an acceptable quality? I don't want to lose a good customer but I don't want to release my images. I am concerned they may be printed at a low-quality lab and would not reflect professional work and damage the reputation that I am trying to build. Any suggestions? Thanks!
- Susan M. Anderson

ANSWER 1:
4x6 @ 72 dpi will not make a good reprint, but should be fine for a screen saver. Your best bet would be to either say no, or to put your signature on the bottom of the photo, up enough off the corner where if they tried to crop it off, you would lose some of the picture. There's nothing you can do about them printing them at home, but believe me, it wouldn't look very good. And no professional lab, even Wal-mart, will print an image with a signature (copyright) on it that didn't have a release.
What I'm concerned about is the fact that your customer is demanding photos from you. If it's not stated in your contract, you should not be required to do so, and they should understand. But if they gave you a large order, most likely they won't go behind your back to print more, especially after they compare the quality of your wonderful prints and they're low-res ones! I offer low-res images for emailing, especially with large orders. It makes them happy, and I've even received repeat business from them after their friends and family see the pictures on their email or screen!
- Michelle Ochoa

ANSWER 2:
Well, you can even make it smaller than 4x6 at 72dpi. Just do it 1024x768 px at 72dpi. This will make it even small and still look great on the computer.
- Justin D. Goeden

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
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NEW QUESTION 9: Camera Batteries
I like taking pictures of scenery and would like to get some winter ones but find that the battery life is really low. Which batteries would be best used in outdoor winter weather?
- susan caperchione

ANSWER 1:
My 2-cents is pretty limited experience... My camera uses 2 AAs; the Sony rechargeables that came with it (2100mAh) seem to die very noticeably fast. I've added a bag of 6 Energizer rechargeables (2500mAh) to my kit and I've seen longer staying time with them. (I tend to use my camera's viewing screen heavily, so I often kill a pair of batteries in one day of shooting.)
- Christopher J. Budny

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ANSWER 2:
For digital rechargeables, try keeping a spare in your pocket with hand warmers that you shake up and they give off heat. They cost a couple of dollars at Wal-mart.
- Gregory La Grange

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ANSWER 3:
If you're worried about all the rage about lithium batteries, see what they're good for first. Lithium will show much more longevity in the extreme cold, up to two or three times the rolls of service. They are also good when your equipment is going to put them through the test -heavy autowinding and many flashes where the demand by your system for power is at a premium.
But nicads are fine if your coldest isn't much below 32F or you're not shooting more than four or five rolls in succession or not tripping the flash on every shot. Judge what your needs are and then go with your need. No need to spend three times as much on a battery when your plain old Energizers will do.
Chris Walrath
http://home.comcast.net/~flash19901/wsb/html/view.cgi-home.html-.html
- Christopher A. Walrath

ANSWER 4:
I use 4 NI-MH rechargeable batteries. I took over 400 pics on one set the other night without even a low battery warning.
- Diane L. Dupuis-Kallos

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NEW QUESTION 10: Client's Request for Photos on CD
I've learned the hard way and don't want to make the same mistake twice. Scenario: A client asks for a quote, the quote consisting of shooting 15 images of a building, and providing those images in large format on disc to them. Do you state in your contract that to reproduce the images there will be an additional charge? Or do you put the images on CD with your watermark over them and say nothing? Or do you charge a higher cost for providing high-resolution images for them to turn around and print? Basically that's giving up your rights to the photos and you as the photographer losing money right? I want to be sure I do my contracts correctly in the future. Also, I want to be sure I don't give the client ownership of the photos. Thank you!
- Ernestine Lona

ANSWER 1:
Sounds to me like the client was, in effect, asking for all rights to the photos up front since he was asking for high-res photos. Obviously, he planned to make his own prints. In that case, just price your work accordingly.
- Kerry L. Walker

ANSWER 2:
Good Morning,
I totally agree with Kerry, adjust your price and keep the job and any referrals they may pass on. You'll get paid for the job and make your client happy. Become too difficult and you may risk any future business with this client and any referrals they may give you.
- Debby Tabb

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ANSWER 3:
When a client approaches me with this kind of a deal, I just tell them up front that they're essentially asking to share the copyright with me. In limited situations and at a higher cost to the client, I'm willing to do that and my contract provides for coextensive usage. In other words, I retain my copyright and grant them a limited license to reproduce the image(s) in a preagreed upon form and/or for a preagreed upon usage. Both of which are limited and my fees are based on the perceived value of the usage to the client.
So, in your case, if all they want to do is print it for display or Web site use, etc., that's fine and you should charge accordingly. Later, if they want to use your work for advertising purposes, they need to agree in advance to pay a usage fee at that point which depends, of course, on what advertising, how large the photo is in the ad, and the certified press run of the publication which is always available from SRDS. (Standard Rate and Data Service).
In these ways, you retain your copyright, the client gets to use the image in an unlimited way but for a specific purpose then essentially pays what I call a "further usage fee" if and when they need to go beyond the usage specified in the initial agreement.
Mark
- Mark Feldstein

ANSWER 4:
Thanks all for answering. Mark, I understand what you're saying, but then a bit confused. Please keep in mind I've just started getting small jobs so if you can explain more. Basically what I do is charge an hourly fee for my time, the cost of mileage, the cost of the cd/postage and mark it up so I don't lose any money. I know he plans on using my images later to advertise his services but unfortunately our contract doesn't state anything about additional fees to me for doing that or reproducing images, it completely slipped my mind because I was glad to get the business. So, basically, how much additional should I charge for that and what should my contracts state in the future? I have a few more jobs lined up and I want to be sure I do it right this time. Thank you!
- Ernestine Lona

ANSWER 5:
Your contract should spell out, very clearly, what your terms are, in addition to what they will be receiving. About.com has some sample photography contracts, I think 4, and if you look at them all, you can pick what applies to you and go from there. You can do it two ways - A) Charge a flat rate for your time (as you do), then charge a royalty fee for the usage of the images. Or B) Charge a larger flat rate, and pretty much give them the files to do as they see fit. If you go with B, you can still retain copyrights to the image, you just give them unlimited permission to utilize the photos as they see fit. These aren't portraits - they won't be looking for reprints. That is how many product photographers do business, because it's the most economical for the client, and the client doesn't feel you're nickel and diming them. I've been on both ends of this, and although some may disagree with me, this is what my experience has shown me. For your contract, In a nutshell, however, you should state the following:

1) Photo shoot consists of taking "x" number of photos, including travel time for $______.

This is your basic fee. State how you will provide proofs - actual prints, or LOW RESOLUTION digital files with your water mark. Then...

2) Royalty fees: $___ per photo to be used for __________ purpose for ______ length of time.

This lets them know that they only have PERMISSION to reproduce your images for one particular purpose.

Put a clause in there somewhere stating that you obtain the rights to the photos, any other usage of the images requires prior written approval, blah blah blah.

As for price, it depends on how the images are being used. If they're using them on a website, or for a catalog, you would necessarily be making any money from those venues unless you were developing the website or printing the catalog yourself. So going with option B may be your best bet, just make sure you charge them a flat rate that compensates you for your time and talent.

If you want to charge royalties, you can look at other stock image companies like Corbis Images. They have royalty free images (usually about $300 for 100 images), and royalty-based images, which could cost around $500+ for the use of one image on your catalog or a mailing piece.
Anyway, hope this helps! Good luck.

PS: I assume you know that with your first client, you're pretty much out of luck. If your contract states you'll give them the disk, you can't go back and charge them more after the fact. And putting a watermark on your images on the disk will royally piss them off . You may have to chalk that one up to a mistake to learn from.
- Michelle Ochoa

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - CONTINUING FROM PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER
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CONTINUING QUESTION 1: Picturing People Wearing Eyeglasses
How do you take a picture of a child with eyeglasses and not get a reflection of the glasses?
- Hope Anderson

ANSWER 1:
There are a few tips to photographing anyone with glasses.
- First make sure your subject's body is angled - and that you have brought their nose around so you have full eyes.
- Make sure the glasses are all the way back on the nose.
- Have them lean towards you - this would be from the waist.
- Lower the subject a little or raise the lights a tad more.
Try these things - one or all should help. A person who wears glasses 75 percent of their day should be photographed in them.
And a little light on the very top of the frame is acceptable if you can't get rid of it.
I do hope this helps.
Debby Tabb
- Debby Tabb

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ANSWER 2:
If you know the person wears glasses before the shoot, you can ask them to bring frames without lenses in them. Or you can tilt the glasses down a bit as well.
- Jason Kesselring

ANSWER 3:
Just have them remove the offending glasses.
Craig
- Craig m. Zacarelli

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ANSWER 4:
What kind of pictures do you have in mind? Candid? Studio portraits? I try not to use flash at all (unless it's off the camera or the child is not looking straight into camera - if it's not reflecting off the lenses, it usually reflects off frames and produces at least some glare). I usually use natural light only and try to remember that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection. It is simple but you will need a lot of practice; I practiced with some good results - my daughter has been wearing glasses full time since she was 15 months and she is 6.5 now). But still when we go to have her pictures taken (Passport only - renowned photo studio in DC area)- they still have problems, and we usually don't like the results, and they use flash for this kind of photos.
- Malina Stanczak

ANSWER 5:
Hi Hope!
The rule is that angle of incidence = angle of reflection, as Debby said. The trick to photographing people with eye glasses is to ensure that your lights aren't set to bounce reflections directly back into your lens, producing a fireball in the subjects lenses. If you're using an on-camera dedicated flash (like a Polaroid passport camera), then you're going to have some problems and sure, at that point, you'd probably do better using available light.
A polarizer has little value in these situations unless you can adjust it while your light source is actually on. Otherwise, you're just guessing at the setting for both lights and filter. Unless you have modeling lights on your strobes, that's pretty tough to do. Even if you don't use strobes with a modeling light (to enable you to actually see if there is any glare or reflection before releasing the shutter), you can try setting up some sort of strong directional light, for example, a photo flood in a clamp-on socket, attached right next to your lighting source. Looking through the viewfinder at your subject, if you don't see your flood light reflected in the subject's glasses, you'll probably avoid the glare/reflection.
If you do use strobes with modeling lights, then all you need to do is adjust either the light or subject or camera angle to the subject or all three until you no longer the modeling lights reflected in their glasses. Lastly, what I always do in such cases is take some with their glasses on and some off. Glasses can make a good prop for the subject to hold, depending on your framing.
Seewhatimeanhuh?
Mark
- Mark Feldstein

ANSWER 6:
If you still have glare on the specks after following all this good advice, or want to fix existing photos: Select the lenses in your editing program and either reduce the saturation, selectively clone out the reflections, or if the eyes are too obscured, clone them in from another source ...
- David A. Rich

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ANSWER 7:
This is what I learned in one of my photography classes: If you need the flash, take the subject's glasses and tilt the ear pieces up, just a little - it reduces that angle of reflection they were talking about before.
If you have enough available light and are just using the flash to get the catchlights in the eyes ... here is another trick my teacher told us
Point your flash straight up, and attach a white plastic spoon on the back of it. Just where the bowl of the spoon comes over the top. The flash will bounce off the spoon just enough to put the catch lights in the eyes. It won't be enough light to provide any fill flash, though.
Good luck!
- Rhonda L. Tolar

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