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SNAPSHOT - PHOTO NEWS FROM BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to SnapShot, the weekly newsletter on
the art of photography from
BetterPhoto.com


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IN THIS ISSUE - Monday, June 13, 2005
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* SPOTLIGHT: BetterPhoto's Summer School: Learn, Shoot, and Enjoy!
* BETTERPHOTO: BetterPhoto Summit: Learn Tips and Techniques from the Best of the Best
* BETTERPHOTO: Book of Month: Jim Zuckerman's Shooting & Selling Your Photos
* BETTERPHOTO: William Neill: OP Columnist and BP Instructor
* FEATURED GALLERY: Father's Day Photography Ideas
* PHOTO TRIVIA QUESTION: Taking Shape / Lightening Up
* THIS WEEK'S TIP: In Praise of Slowing Down and Waiting ... by Jeff Wignall
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 1: Easy Solution to Cropping in PS CS?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 2: Effects of Refrigerated Film
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 3: Shooting Action Pictures Indoors
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 4: Digital Vs. Film Latitude
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 5: Lens Filter - for Bright Colors
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 6: Photographing Fireworks
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 7: Help with Black and White
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 8: Teleconverters: Worth it or not?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 9: Photographing a Large Group
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 10: Shutter Speed Vs. Tripod Use
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 11: Just What Does Macro Mean?
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 1: F-Stop, Shutter Speed, and Flowing Water


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IN THE SPOTLIGHT - ADVERTISEMENT
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BetterPhoto's Summer School: Learn, Shoot, and Enjoy!
Are you interested in learning more about digital photography, photographic field techniques, exposure, composition, Photoshop, specialty subjects, or the business of photography? Join us this summer for an exciting online photo course at BetterPhoto.com. Let us be your guide ... with our online courses, you WILL become a better photographer. And these courses are fun too! Check out our lineup at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/categories.asp


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WHAT'S NEW AT BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to the 216th issue of SnapShot!

Hi

Note to members: In our recent survey, we received a lot of excellent suggestions for improving BetterPhoto.com. One frequent request was for greater insight into the contest judges's decision-making. Well, you asked for it ... you've got it: mini-critiques on selected contest images!

With so many entries each month, it's impossible for our judging team to make comments on each image. However, when something catches a judge's eye, a quick critique may be offered. This will be a sentence or two that lets you know what the judge liked best about the image - or how a photo could have been improved.

At times, you might get positive comments from one judge and later receive negative comments from another. For example, this might happen when the image is of high quality, but simply mis-categorized.

This is not an invitation for debate, by the way. The judging is already done at this point. Our motive is to give you some feedback, so the contest is not such a mystery. I hope you enjoy this new BetterPhoto feature!

Now onward to this issue of SnapShot. The word is in on William Neill's online course: it's awesome! Read more about his "Portfolio Development" class below. In addition, don't miss an excellent photo tip by BetterPhoto instructor Jeff Wignall. Also, take a look at the Father's Day gallery - along with an article by instructor Kerry Drager. And, as usual, we have a tremendous question-and-answer section.

That's it for now. Have a great week of photography!
Jim Miotke
http://www.betterphoto.com/MG.asp?ID=124


*****
BetterPhoto Summit: Learn Tips and Techniques from the Best of the Best
Meet BetterPhoto's instructors - in person! - and learn photography during one jam-packed weekend! Just consider the exciting presentations we have planned: "Digital Exposure" (Bryan Peterson), "What You Can Do to Immediately Put Drama in Your Photos" (Jim Zuckerman), "The New Essentials of Photoshop" (Ben Willmore), "Creating Dynamic Travel Images" (Brenda Tharp), "Fine Art Flower Photography" (Tony Sweet), "The New BetterPhoto.com" (Jim Miotke), "Creatively Photographing Children" (Vik Orenstein), "Digital SLR Photography" (George Schaub), "Alternative Photographic Processes" (Kathleen Carr), and "Creatively Writing Articles on Photography" (Kerry Drager). This first annual BetterPhoto Summit takes place September 10th and 11th, 2005, near the Seattle airport ... two days of instruction and inspiration for just $297!
http://www.betterphoto.com/summit.asp


*****
Book of Month: Jim Zuckerman's Shooting & Selling Your Photos
Our online store showcases the fantastic books and DVDs from our staff of BetterPhoto instructors. For June, we put the spotlight on Jim Zuckerman's awesome book, "Shooting & Selling Your Photos: The Complete Guide to Making Money With Your Photography". If you buy this fine book before the end of June, you will receive free U.S. shipping. Best yet, it's autographed by Jim! Also, Jim teaches a number of great classes here at BetterPhoto: "Eight Steps To More Dramatic Photography", "Mastering Light", "Creative Techniques in Photoshop", "How to Photograph Animals and Wildlife", "Making Masterpieces with Painter", "Making Money with Your Photography", "Non-Digital Special Effects", "Photoshop II: Advanced Photoshop Techniques", and "Fundamentals of Photography Made Easy with Jim Zuckerman". For all the book details, go to:
http://www.betterphoto.com/product/ourProductDetailLg.asp?productID=1191


*****
William Neill: OP Columnist and BP Instructor
One of BetterPhoto's more dynamic online courses, "Portfolio Development," has completed its first session (Spring) with glowing reviews! The instructor is William Neill, who is the "On Landscape" columnist for Outdoor Photographer magazine and the photographer of many wonderful books (including "Landscapes Of The Spirit" and "Yosemite: The Promise of Wildness"). His exciting course focuses on the art of editing your images and the development of thematic portfolios. For details:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/BIL01.asp

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FEATURED GALLERY
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Father's Day Photography Ideas
The great bond between parent and child can produce some truly memorable images. In fact, BetterPhoto members and instructors have captured some wonderful portraits that show the loving relationship between father and daughter, father and son. And, of course, that special family occasion - Father's Day - offers great opportunities to capture cherished memories in pictures. Check out our outstanding gallery at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGall2.asp?catID=1261

For some Father's Day photography tips and techniques, check out BetterPhoto instructor Kerry Drager's excellent article at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/article.asp?id=73

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PHOTO TRIVIA QUIZ OF THE WEEK
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Last week, we asked:
"Silhouette" refers to a dark figure or outline that's set against a light background. How did this word get its meaning?

The first, best answer - entered by BetterPhoto member Jenny Bosmans is:
'Silhouette' refers to a Frenchman Etienne de Silhouette, who lived in the 18th century and was in charge of finances. When he fell out of grace with Louis XV, he only had his hobby left ... placing self-made large 'shadow-statues' in his gardens. Since then, black profile-portraits are called 'silhouettes'.

Editor's Note: Great answers to this question! Here's another view ... this from Webster's New World College Dictionary: The term silhouette derives from "Etienne de Silhouette (1709-67), French minister of finance, in derogatory reference to his fiscal policies and to such amateur portraits by him, both regarded as inept."



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http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp?stat=PRV

And Now... This Week's Photo Trivia Question - Lightening Up - entered by BetterPhoto member Kerry Drager

Carbon-fiber tripods have been called the first big advance in tripod design in many years. They are sturdy and lighter in weight than their aluminum counterparts. Of course, they're more expensive, too. What year did the carbon-fiber tripod debut?

Submit your own answer to this question by visiting:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp

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THIS WEEK'S PHOTO TIP
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In Praise of Slowing Down and Waiting ... by Jeff Wignall
I've come to learn that when I'm frustrated in my search for photos, it usually isn't because there isn't enough time or the light isn't behaving, it's because I'm rushing through the experience instead of just sitting back and "waiting for the images" to come to me. That's one of the reasons I always use a tripod, by the way - it forces me to spend more time in one place.

There is a "pace" to most places. Sometimes that pace is fast and more frenetic (like working in Times Square at midnight, as I have many times), and sometimes it's more slow and deliberate (like Iowa late on a May afternoon). But there is always time to slow down and wait - to notice the more quiet pictures. And even if you don't find pictures, you'll enjoy yourself more!

Note: This Photo Tip is excerpted from one of Jeff Wignall's BetterPhoto blog entries:
http://www.betterphoto.com/blogs/insights/archives/weblogs_by_jeff_wignall/index.html

Jeff also teaches an excellent course, "The Joy of Digital Photography, here at BetterPhoto:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JEF01.asp

Top Ten Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/tips.asp

All Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/allTips.asp

Add Your Own Tip:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/login.asp?category=tip&inputType=tip

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ADVERTISEMENT
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My new book guides you away from the point-and-pray method of taking pictures to shooting with confidence. In this simple and clear how-to book, you will learn:

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P.O. Box 2781
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To order online, visit:
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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - NEW THIS WEEK
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NEW QUESTION 1: Easy Solution to Cropping in PS CS?
I have a senior portrait yearbook requirement for the print to be 2.5" x 3.5" and the subjects head to be 1" top of head to chin.
Question: Is there a simple way to crop the picture to the 2.5x3.5 size with ensuring the head size req.? Or is it a crop & measure (with the side rulers)process?
I'm using Photoshop CS.
- Tony Peckman

ANSWER 1:
If you use your crop tool with those measurements, then you should be able to do that, but I would NOT recommend this. I would just print the photo to that particular size print. This is much easier and that way you are not messing with the data of the photo. The original photo needs to be taken in such a way that it adheres to the requirements.
- Melissa L. Zavadil

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ANSWER 2:
There is a measuring tool in your side toolbar made specifically for this purpose. Once you size your image, you draw the measuring tool from head to chin, and it will tell you how long it is.
Michael H. Cothran
www.mhcphoto.net
- Michael H. Cothran

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*****


NEW QUESTION 2: Effects of Refrigerated Film
What effects does outdated refrigerated film have? What symptoms to look for after development? Should you increase the development time? Black-and-white, but also color print film?
- ABE MILLER

ANSWER 1:
Refrigeration slows down the aging process of film. It's a good thing. In your situation, the best thing is to test a roll first.
Michael H. Cothran
www.mhcphoto.net
- Michael H. Cothran

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*****


NEW QUESTION 3: Shooting Action Pictures Indoors
I would love your recommendation as to taking action photos indoors with poor lighting. I'm using a Canon 20D for reference. In full auto, a flash gets lost at distance, and the images look dark and unattractive. Using available light results in blurs. Even using the action setting, with low light slows the shutter speed to create a blur. Can't quite figure out the solution. Thanks in advance for the help.
- Barrett D. Clark

ANSWER 1:
I don't have the Canon 20D but have a Minolta Maxxum 7D and have found that to shoot indoors (for me meaning basketball or volleyball) that I had to get an accessory flash. This helped tremendously, and I got some great photos as a result! Another option would be to invest in a lens that will accommodate a wider aperture, but I'm thinking that getting that with a zoom at all you are looking at some $$. What are you setting ISO on? I have to put mine on at least 800 and most of the time 1600 to get the best results! Doing this and with my flash and a 75-300 f5.6 lens got me results I was pleased with!
- Michelle Ross

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ANSWER 2:
Michelle, thanks so much for taking the time to answer my question. I've been taking outdoor photos for some time, but still an amateur in every sense. I was using (in a gym also) an ef 100-400L 4.5-5.6. Perhaps a faster aperture and a flash are the answer. I'm trying to photograph individuals, so the zoom is preferred. What type of lens do you use in that situation? Thanks again.
- Barrett D. Clark

ANSWER 3:
Hi Barrett ... If you get an accessory flash, your 100-400 lens should work for you fine! I used a sigma 75-300 lens and when I was sitting in the stands it usually had to be on 300 ... sometimes I would stand on the floor and could go down to 100mm ... at the 300mm range my aperture would only go to 5.6 but that seemed to work. The only advantage to a faster aperture would be to try to avoid having to use flash but you may find you still have to have one and the on camera one regardless will most likely not be strong enough! My flash was around $100, which is much cheaper than a lens will probably be! Good Luck!
- Michelle Ross

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ANSWER 4:
Hi Barrett,
I just happened to catch your question, and I have a couple of quick suggestions. I agree with Michelle that a fairly strong flash is a good idea (as is boosting the ISO to around 800); just raising the ISO will also greatly increase the distance capability of the flash. You might also look at a neat accessory from L.L. Rue called the "Project-a-flash" that uses a fresnel lens that fits over your flash to boost light by as much as three stops. It only sells for about $35 (http://www.rue.com/teleflash.html), and it's probably a worthwhile thing to try if you've got a good long lens and a good flash. The thing is, it really only works well with lenses of 300mm or longer (otherwise, it vignettes the image a bit). Check it out. I don't care for flash much, and I sometimes would rather use REALLY long exposures (a half second or longer) and just let the motion create an interesting blur, but if sharpness and good exposure are important, that flash accessory might help. Jeff
- Jeff Wignall

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Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Jeff Wignall:
The Joy of Digital Photography with Jeff Wignall

ANSWER 5:
Barrett:
In your original post you state: "... In full auto, a flash gets lost at distance, and the images look dark and unattractive. Using available light results in blurs. Even using the action setting, with low light slows the shutter speed to create a blur. ..."
Are you using green box and the icon exposure modes only (i.e. the "Basic" modes)? In these modes, you are limited by the camera automatically setting ISO between 100 and 400. If you shoot instead in the "Creative" modes of P, Av, Tv, and M, you can manually set the ISO higher, to 800, 1600, or 3200. Setting higher ISO will allow you to use faster shutter speeds to stop action in the available light. With a flash the higher ISO settings keep the background from going dark and extends the flash range.
The Basic modes also limit you to Auto White Balance, which may or may not give you optimal white balance with the gym lighting. In Creative modes, you can select the white balance using one of the presets, taking a reading to set a custom white balance, or (if you can determine it) set it directly to the K color temperature of the lights.
- Jon Close

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NEW QUESTION 4: Digital Vs. Film Latitude
The concept of film latitude is well-established for B/W, color negative, and color slide film. But what is the situation with digital cameras? I shoot with a Canon D20. Is the latitude greater for overexposure or greater for underexposure? Is that a concept relevant to digital photography?
- Bennie G. Lindeque

ANSWER 1:
Bennie,
In general - and this is a generalization - digital has a latitude between negative and chrome. Two issues ...

Highlights: Unlike film, though (negative in particular), one must watch highlights, as they seem to go from detail to complete washout almost without warning ... almost a "step function" in highlight response. It's one of the things I know wedding and portrait photographers using digital concern themselves with. I'm uncertain if this is mitigated by working in RAW, though.

Shadows: Noise is one of the noted problems in deep shadow. There are noise "filters" intended to remove it, but they can have unintended side effects, more noticeable in some photographs than others, as the algorithms are less than perfect.
- John A. Lind

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NEW QUESTION 5: Lens Filter - for Bright Colors
What kind of filter would you use to keep colors bright and not washed out on very sunny days???
- Mary J. Gorton

ANSWER 1:
A polarizer. It should really help. It also helps seeing through windows, and through water.
- Brendan Knell

ANSWER 2:
What exactly are you shooting? Can the objects be moved into the shade? If not, don't worry about filters. Get in close and meter off the bright color. Your exposure should be correct ... as long as there are no bright whites in the same composition. In this scenario, let the shadows and dark areas fall where they may. Let the color of the subject be the main point of interest.
- Bob Cammarata

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NEW QUESTION 6: Photographing Fireworks
Does anyone know the best way to capture fire works? (Digital camera) Any advice would really be helpful. ... tripod, flash, etc. Thanks!
- Charlene Bayerle

Visit PictureThisbyChar.com - Charlene's Deluxe BetterPholio™

ANSWER 1:
The results from this will probably be better from a film camera, but you can definitly do it with digitals as well - SLRs in particular. I see you're using a digital SLR? I think the best thing to do would be to use a remote and a tripod. You will want to set the shutter speed to 'bulb' for self-timed exposures (however long you hold the button down). The remote is so you don't shake the camera when pushing the shutter button that's on the camera. You may want to experiment with different ISOs and different f/values, but your shutter speed can be around 8 seconds or more or less. Try out some long exposures with your digital camera at night to see how it handles the noise levels. When I took some pictures of fireworks with my film camera, I used the wired remote and the camera on a tripod. I think I used f/4 with ISO 400 film and I held the remote shutter down until I had seen enough fireworks in the approximate field of view that I wanted. Hope this helps!
- Andrew Laverghetta

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ANSWER 2:
Try to get there early and secure a great position without any trees or sky clutter ... as close as possible to ground zero. (The top of a hill is ideal.)
A bulb setting with a tripod is a must. You can avoid using a mechanical or wired release by "masking" the lens when you depress and release the shutter. Hold a black card (or anything dark) in front of the lens, press the shutter, and while holding it down, remove the card and start counting off seconds. After the burst, cover the lens opening with the card and release the shutter.
With a sturdy tripod, no camera movement will register using this technique.
If digital is like slide film, an ISO setting of 100 will produce better colors on the longer exposure times. A three- or four-second exposure at ASA 400 might turn those brilliant colors to yellow or white.
I noticed last year that at 100 ASA at f-5.6 or f-8, the shorter exposure times of two to four seconds yielded the most accurate colors. All of the longer exposures of eight seconds or more came out white or yellow.
You can, of course, stop down your lens for those long exposures, but you will be sacrificing a little sharpness and clarity in doing so.
- Bob Cammarata

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ANSWER 3:
Thanks so much Andrew and Bob ... I forgot to say that I would be on the 26th floor of my friend's condo and the fireworks are right across the way ... by Navy Pier.

- Charlene Bayerle

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ANSWER 4:
... Sounds like a great vantage point! Just remember that if it's windy, your building may "sway" enough to make your shots a little fuzzy. (This happened to me once while trying to photograph the Strip at Las Vegas from a tall building on a windy night.)
- Bob Cammarata

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NEW QUESTION 7: Help with Black and White
I'm new to converting to black and white through Photoshop. I have a hard time deciding what looks best when converting. What could I do different with this to look like a true black and white?
- Mike Carpenter

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ANSWER 1:
Mike,
You do very nice work. Glad you picked up a camera and kept shooting. There are a couple of ways to make good B&W.
Open your image and go to image, and to adjustment, open up hue and saturation. Click on the saturation slider and move it to the left all the way. Now you have a good start for a B&W. Go back to adjustments and click on select color, click on the tab at the top choose black, and use the slider to add black (normally 10 to 15 permit). Now go back to adjustments and choose shadows and highlights, click on show more and then play with the sliders in the preview mode. This will give you the most control over your image.
Please post the results of your work. Hope this info is helpful.
Doug

- Doug Elliott

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NEW QUESTION 8: Teleconverters: Worth it or not?
As some of you might have noticed, I sit here at work bored with nothing to do but read and ask questions on this site! Anyway, I read the description of a teleconverter and it sounded too good to be true. I don't believe much, so I need some advice before I shell out $300. Are they too good to be true? What I read was that I would double my lens. I have a 75-300mm. I don't want to spend thousands right now on a 500mm lens, so this teleconverter looks like the right thing to get me up to 600mm. Is this correct? What are some pros and cons ... and should I buy one? Thanks for your time.
- Justin D. Goeden

ANSWER 1:
You lose two stops with a 2X converter ... but if you have a good 75-300mm zoom and can match it with the manufacturer's 2X, it's a good temporary solution.
- John Sandstedt

ANSWER 2:
I'm assuming your 75-300 has maximum aperture of f/4-5.6. Adding the 2x teleconverter makes the lens effectively 150-600mm (2x longer) and f/8-11 (2 stops slower). f/8-11 lets only 1/4th the light through to the film/image plane and viewfinder. Most autofocus systems need f/5.6 or brighter, so your camera will not autofocus with the 2x teleconverter. The viewfinder will also be much dimmer, making manual focus difficult.
Some teleconverters can only be used with a few specific lenses. Notably Canon's EF 1.4x and EF 2x, and Sigma's APO TCs. These TCs have an extended front element that fits into the back of the mated lens. On a non-compatible lens, it will collide with the lens's rear-most element. There are only 4 zoom lenses that can be used with the Canon TCs: Canon's own EF 70-200 f/4L USM, EF 70-200 f/2.8L USM, EF 70-200 f/2.8L IS USM, and EF 100-400 f/4.5-5.6 IS USM. See http://www.sigma-photo.com/lenses/lenses_tele.asp for the list of lenses compatible with Sigma's TCs.

The TCs made by Kenko and Tamron do not have the extended front element and can generally be used with just about any lens longer than about 50mm.
- Jon Close

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NEW QUESTION 9: Photographing a Large Group
I have been asked to take an outside family portrait (four families) that include 9 adults and 6 children. I have the 28-135mm Canon IS Lens and shoot with the Canon Digital Rebel. I was pretty confident with this set-up until I started reading some other questions and answers regarding large groups. Everyone seems to recommend a 50mm lens. Do you feel my lens will be adequate to make a sharp, clear picture without any distortions?
- Kimberly A. Totten

ANSWER 1:
I think you'll be allright ... 15 people isn't that big of a group. You've got a good camera and a good lens. The light will be the important thing.
sam
- samuel smith

ANSWER 2:
Be wary of doing this at the wide-angle end of your lens. It's better to keep to a more "normal" focal length and back up some. Using a wide angle with group photographs can cause an unnatural looking perspective "distortion" of people near the frame edges, especially with people's heads, and especially if their heads are near the corners.
- John A. Lind

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NEW QUESTION 10: Shutter Speed Vs. Tripod Use
In general, at what shutter speed would you typically start to use a tripod or stabilizing device?
- Mike Stephens

ANSWER 1:
With a lightweight lens/camera combo - like a 50mm or 135mm - if you're steady, you can do 1/15 without. What you might see recommended in a book or manual, 1/60 without. Below those, go with a tripod. But, that doesn't mean you have to.
- Gregory La Grange

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ANSWER 2:
It's all relative to the individual and, as Greg pointed out, the equipment he or she is using. If you have the tripod with you, use it. That's the general rule I follow whenever I go below 1/60 for all-around scenics with a standard or medium wide-angle lens, and below 1/250 with my telephoto or tele-converter.
In macro, I will use a tripod always.
You can get acceptable results on slower speeds by using your own body as a support. Leaning against a tree or wall is a good example. Sometimes, I'll sit on the ground and prop my elbows on my knees. These methods can't replace the tripod but will work in a pinch.
- Bob Cammarata

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ANSWER 3:
IMHO: if you want tack-sharp images, use a tripod. Of course, there are conditions when using a tripod is simply not practical. However, I use a tripod about 85 percent of the time and find that I have gotten fairly adept at setting up quickly. I have found that my shots are generally better when using a tripod since it forces me to slow down and really "see" a scene before I start trying to capture it.
- Irene C. Troy

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NEW QUESTION 11: Just What Does Macro Mean?
Hi, I recently bought a Nikon 35-70mm lens (manual focus) on eBay. It's described as f3.5-4.8 and has a macro facility. Since I have no manual book, I wonder if anyone could clarify for me - what's the macro facility mean? I was expecting a button or switch, which would allow it to zoom more or focus better?? Also, what does the aperture range mean? My other lens is a 200mm f2.8, so that's easy to understand. But I don't know what it means to have a range like 3.5-4.8. Does this mean at certain focusing ranges I can't go lower than 4.8?? I'm only a beginner - thanks a million.
- COLM CASSERLY

ANSWER 1:
Macro means getting the frame filled more with the subject. For example, 1:1 (one to one, a ratio) would allow you to take a picture of a penny and set it on the negative so that the penny and the image on the negative would be exactly the same size. This usually costs a lot. Let's see, I'll try to make this more concise. A MACRO-specific lens lets you move the lens closer to the subject and still focus sharply, instead of still being out of focus. Does the lens say "macro 1:(insert something like 1-4) on the front or barrel?
Most lenses that say "macro setting" really mean that they can focus somewhat close. You'll just have to see how close it can get. Anyways, macro means close-up photography. Check out insect or flower photography, for examples.
The 200mm f2.8 has a constant wide aperture. When you have a zoom lens, it's usually more expensive to keep that large aperture at the same size/value all the way from 35mm to 70mm. More basically, at 35mm, you can use f3.5 but at the full 70mm, your largest aperture will be f4.8. Just make sure you're aware, the lower the 'f' number, the larger the aperture. There will probably also be a midway aperture value, possibly f4.0 will be the widest you can go at 50mm? Not sure, though. Hope this helps!
- Andrew Laverghetta

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - CONTINUING FROM PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER
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CONTINUING QUESTION 1: F-Stop, Shutter Speed, and Flowing Water
My camera only allows for an 8 f-stop. This means I cant get the flowing waterfall effect, since I can't lower my shutter enough without overexposing. I was told a neutral-density (ND) filter might help. I looked into one, and I can only get one that would bump it up to a 9 f-stop. Would this be enough, or would I need more like an 11 f-stop? What shutter and f-stop setting do you guys use? Any info on where I can get a ND filters to fit my camera threads?
- Eric Seidle

ANSWER 1:
Don't worry so much about your aperture setting. Available light and your ISO setting will determine how slow you can go.
Shoot waterfalls on cloudy days or in deep shade to get that veiling effect. An ISO (ASA) setting of 100 or lower will yield great results.
Vertical falls will start to blur at 1/30 second, and at 1/15 second and slower, the water will "veil" and get cotton-like.
I've shot 100 ASA film at f-8 and have gone as slow as 1/4 second or slower on cloudy days.
- Bob Cammarata

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ANSWER 2:
In addition to the above, you have not mentioned if you are using a digital camera or a conventional film camera. If it is digital camera and, if possible, set the speed to 50 ISO. If you are using a film camera, try to get a ISO 50 film/slide, or else you can buy a 100 ASA film and pull it to 50 - and at the time of processing, you need to tell the lab to pull-process by one stop. Regarding ND filters, it's wise to use a graduated ND filter than a plain ND filter. I would suggest you to use the Cokin system, where you can stack up more than one filter in a filter holder. Check out this link for further details. http://www.geocities.com/cokinfiltersystem/links/id25.htm

You can stack up to three or four filters in one P-holder - which means that if you have a two-stop ND filter you can reduce your shutter by 8 stops. This should give you a nice blur effect. Check out my gallery for such a picture. I am also attaching it for your reference.
- Anand S

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