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SNAPSHOT - PHOTO NEWS FROM BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to SnapShot, the weekly newsletter on
the art of photography from
BetterPhoto.com


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IN THIS ISSUE - Tuesday, January 13, 2004
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* SPOTLIGHT: Promote Your Portfolio of Photos in a Deluxe BetterPholio™
* BETTERPHOTO: New Questions and Answers Section at BetterPhoto
* BETTERPHOTO: Not Too Late for a Photo Course
* BETTERPHOTO: New Web Page: About Our Instructors
* PHOTO TRIVIA QUESTION: All DOFs Created Equal? / Moon Photo
* THIS WEEK'S TIP: Cameras in Cold Temperatures - A Tip By Rita Hill
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 1: Blurry Action Photos
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 2: Please Explain Megapixels
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 3: Finding a Soft Focus Filter
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 4: Two Part Question: Filters, Reflection on glass
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 5: Which First Camera
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 6: Blurred Pictures
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 7: Colors In My Photos Look Dull and Muddy
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 8: Digital To Transparencies?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 9: Camera Settings for Best Prints
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 1: Starting Out in Photography
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 2: Shutter Speeds and Apertures


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IN THE SPOTLIGHT - ADVERTISEMENT
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

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WHAT'S NEW AT BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to the 143rd issue of SnapShot!

Hi

First off, I want to let you know that we have a completely revised Q&A section on the Web site. With search functionality and a cleaner interface, you will find it all the easier to find great answers and ask pressing questions, much like the answers and questions in this week's newsletter.

And we do have some great Q&A for you this week! Learn about blur, megapixels, filters, and first cameras - regardless of what you are seeking to learn, we have it all.

Two final notes:

  1. It's not too late to enroll in a class. Sign up this week and you will still be able to join the fun, as long as there is still room left in the course of your choice.
  2. The December contest finalists are very close to being published. Stay tuned to the BetterPhoto Home page... we should have these finalists posted by sundown (Tuesday).
Enjoy another fine week of photography,
Jim Miotke
http://www.betterphoto.com/MG.asp?ID=124


*****
New Questions and Answers Section at BetterPhoto
Thanks to our most recently acquired team member, Jay Wadley, BetterPhoto has a totally new and improved Q&A section. Striving to take the best features of typical online forums and blend them together with the more user-friendly features of BetterPhoto's previous Q&A, Jay successfully created an interface that allows you to zip around and find the answer you need, without feeling lost or frustrated. A search function is on top of the page, the categorization has been simplified, and the questions are displayed in a streamlined, summary format. We love it! Take a peek and let us know how you like the new set-up:
http://www.betterphoto.com/qnaTOC.asp


*****
Not Too Late for a Photo Course
If you have been kicking yourself for waiting too long... don't fret! There is still time to join an online photography course. Sure, the first lessons have been sent out a few days ago, but the assignments from them are not due for about a week. If you sign up today, we can send you the first lesson pronto and you will have plenty of time to do the first assignment. Choose from the available photo courses at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/online-photography-courses.asp


*****
New Web Page: About Our Instructors
Have you ever wanted to learn more about one of our awesome BetterPhoto instructors? We have a new page just for this purpose. At our "About Our Instructors" page, you can learn everything you ever wanted to know about the instructors - including the books they have written, their experience out in the field, and their specialities. Take a look at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/photography-instructors.asp

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PHOTO TRIVIA QUIZ OF THE WEEK
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Last week, we asked:
Name one easy way to create photos with more depth of field. Bonus Question: would DOF centered in the foreground of a photo be as deep as DOF centered closer to the background, all other things being equal? Why?

The first, best answer - entered by BetterPhoto member Ersi Samara is:
Not all DOFs are equal. When focusing on distant objects, the depth of field is considerably greater than when focusing on near objects. The narrower the aperture (f/stop), the greater the DOF. There is a technique called "Hyperfocal Distance" that I believe offers the greatest DOF possible. You have to center the infinity mark on the distance-scale of your lense over the right-hand f/stop number you are using on the DOF scale. (If you have set your aperture at f/22 for maximum DOF, for instance, center the infinity mark over the right-hand 22 number.) That should do it.

To see all answers to this question, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp?stat=PRV

And Now... This Week's Photo Trivia Question - Moon Photo - entered by BetterPhoto member Jim Miotke

When and on which craft was the first photo of the moon taken from space?

Submit your own answer to this question by visiting:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp

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THIS WEEK'S PHOTO TIP
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Cameras in Cold Temperatures - A Tip By Rita Hill
Never keep your cameras - digital or film - in your car or in a cold room. Condensation builds up once you enter a warm room or building. That moisture is never welcomed to any electronic gears or glass lenses. Also the cold temperature wears down battery life. Working at a camera repair store, we find this a common problem. Baby your equipment, keep it from moisture, dust, sandy beaches, etc. and carry it in a shock proof bag.

Top Ten Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/tips.asp

All Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/allTips.asp

Add Your Own Tip:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/login.asp?category=tip&inputType=tip

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - NEW THIS WEEK
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NEW QUESTION 1: Blurry Action Photos
I have a Minolta Maxxum STsi 35mm SLR. When using a 100-300 autofocus lens to take pictures of the athletes at a gymnastics meet (where flash is not permitted), the action/motion pictures come out blurred, even when using 800 film. I use the automatic settings on the camera. Should I use manual settings and/or a faster film speed? Any suggestions would be appreciated.
- David

ANSWER 1:
I have a feeling that a 100-300 zoom is some where close to a f/5 lens. Maybe at the 100 side it's f/4, but at 100 you may not feel that it brings you in close enough. You'll have to use the fastest film you can get since you don't have an f/2.8 lens. And then you have to time your shots when their motion slows or when they do the poses on the balance beam.
- Gregory La Grange

Visit gregorylagrange.org - Gregory's Deluxe BetterPholio™

ANSWER 2:
David, I had the same camera and lens which I used for taking high school football pictures, no flash, poor lighting at night. I got the best results using Fuji Press 1600 film and a monopod, and setting the camera on manual mode with a shutter speed of 1/250 or 1/350, aperture 5.6 (the widest open this lens would go). Try not to zoom all the way out to 300mm if you can help it, the lens is soft at this end and is best up to about 250mm. Good luck!
- Carol Brill

Visit cdubvarsityfootball.com - Carol's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7817

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7817

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*****


NEW QUESTION 2: Please Explain Megapixels
I want to improve the quality of my prints. More megapixels seems to produce a larger picture, rather than more per inch.
- Frank Everts

ANSWER 1:
A megapixel is a million pixels. Camera makers arrive at their MP figures by multiplying the length of their best quality image by the width (in pixels).

Without knowing specifically what the problem is with your prints, I'd wonder if you are running them through an imaging program and setting the print size you want, and, at the same time, telling the program not to throw out any pixels. See http://www.dougnelsonphoto.com/-/dougnelsonphoto/article.asp?ID=24, the paragraph about sizing the image. If you don't have an imaging program, Elements 2 comes highly recommended.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7815

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7815

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NEW QUESTION 3: Finding a Soft Focus Filter
I cant find any soft focus filters for the Canon G1. Is there anything I can do or use to get that effect?
Please help.
Thanks.
- Joy Front

ANSWER 1:
If the lens does not have filter screw threads on the front, you can use some nylon stocking as a "soft focus" filter. Use a rubber band to hold the material over the lens only, you don't want it to block the autofocus windows on the front of the camera.
- Jon Close

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7812

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7812

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NEW QUESTION 4: Two Part Question: Filters, Reflection on glass
1) I just got some filters for my Digital Fuji S-5000. One is Clear, One Polarizer, One Orange, One Clear with a hole in the center. I got them from a Ritz Camera Store. All are 55mm. The sales person did not explain the prober use for them. Can someone help me to understand the proper use?

2) I noticed that when I tried taking a picture of something that in a glass enclosure my reflection appeared in the images. How can I eliminate it?
- Wilfredo De Los Rios

ANSWER 1:
You don't know what they're for, the salesperson doesn't know what they're for, why did you buy them?

The clear one is probably a UV filter, for cutting UltraViolet light. UV is invisible to human sight, but the chemical photographic film process reacts to it and will make pictures too blue, especially at altitude or seashores. I'm not sure it's really necessary for digital cameras. Many people use a UV filter on the lens full time to help protect it from scratches, fingerprints, damage in dropping, etc. The filter is relatively inexpensive/expendable compared to the lens.

The polarizer is the one to use to cut reflections in glass or on water. It is directional, you have to rotate it to get the amount of effect you want. It will also deepen the blue of skies. Works best at about 90 degrees to the sun.

The orange filter is used for black and white photography. Other common B&W filters are Red, Green, Yellow and are used to create contrast where two different colors produce the same shade of gray in B&W.

The clear with the hole in the center is used to isolate a subject. The hole allows the center subject to be clear and sharp, the surrounding glass will create blur in the rest of the scene.

see http://www.tiffen.com/Filter_&_Lens_Brochure/BFILT_cover2.htm
or
http://www.thkphoto.com/products/hoya/index.html
or find the book, The Kodak Workshop Series - Using Filters
for more information.
- Jon Close

ANSWER 2:
Jon Close: I would like to thank you for the feed back you gave me about the explanation on the use of these filter. Now I can see it clear.
- Wilfredo De Los Rios

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7810

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7810

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*****


NEW QUESTION 5: Which First Camera
Hi my name is Tyrone and I'm new to photography, although I have taken great pictures with just point and shoot 35m cameras throughout the years. I am now taking photography very serious. I love taking pictures of sports - boxing, baseball, etc. I would like to know what would be a great camera to stop action. I really like that moment when the action freezes. I was thinking about the Maxxum 5 or Canon Rebel Ti. Can anyone please let me know what would be best? Thanks. My budget is about 600.00
- Tyrone Marquez

ANSWER 1:
You would not go too wrong with either one. However, $600 allows a higher level choice than the rock bottom of the maker's line. Automatic focus may not always work as well as you'd like with dimly lit sports situations. Look a couple of steps up the manufacturer's lineup to get a more sophisticated autofocus function, and maybe even a brighter viewfinder. Plan on good telephotos or zooms, and plan to use a tripod or monopod to steady the camera. Maybe a 50 or 85 would do just fine for the boxing ring. For sports, you get dealt the double whammy of less than ideal lighting and fast action. You and I can't afford the f2.8 300mm lenses the pros use, but we can use fast film (high ASA number), the fastest shutter our equipment allows and hope.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7807

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7807

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*****


NEW QUESTION 6: Blurred Pictures
I recently bought a Canon EOS Rebel Ti. I've taken 2 rolls worth of pictures so far. Every picture was taken with the camera set to the Full Auto mode using the same type of film. Both roles were developed at the same 1-Hour photo lab (at different times.) The pictures from the first roll are great and very sharp. (Which gave some justification to my decision to finally spend some money on a good camera.) Now my problem: The second set of pictures came out terrible. Subjects vary from people, landscape, buildings, day, night, etc and EVERY picture is blurred. Any ideas why I'm seeing such a difference between the two sets of pictures? Everything I've found so far indicates camera shake is to blame. That doesn't make sense to me considering it's every picture and only from the second roll. My initial thought is that the photo lab screwed something up. I'm really not experienced with photography, so any feedback will be greatly appreciated.
- Jim

ANSWER 1:
Blurred pictures due to camera shake, is usually a by-product of using a slower shutter speed than one can comfortably hand-hold their camera.
If all of the shots on the roll were fuzzy, it's doubtfull that the lab was to blame. (Were they prints, or slides? Were they two rolls of film of the same speed?)

Is it possible that the ISO setting may have been changed by mistake to a lower number between rolls? This would cause the camera to choose a slow shutter speed.
- Bob Cammarata

Visit cammphoto.com - Bob's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
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*****


NEW QUESTION 7: Colors In My Photos Look Dull and Muddy
I got a Canon Rebel TI with Canon 28-105mm F4.0-5.6 USM AF Lens. I took a lot of photos but the colors in my photos look dull and muddy. Is there anyone in here knows what is wrong with my equipments or any advise? PLEASE HELP!!!. Thanks a lot.
- Mike Ho

ANSWER 1:
dull:
Poor lighting/underexposed?
Lens flare? Use a lens hood and be careful of bright stray light hitting the front of the lens.
Poor printing?

muddy:
Bad focus? Do not zoom in to focus and then zoom back wide to take the photo. That lens (like many/most af zooms) is varifocal and changes focus when zoomed.

Dirty lens/filter?

Wide open aperture? stopped down to ~f/8 will sharpen things.
Subject or camera movement with too slow shutter speed?
- Jon Close

ANSWER 2:
Thanks a lot for your reply. I really don't know what is going on with my photos. Sometimes the flash didn't come out even though I shoot it in the night. Do you think that my equipment is defected? Do I have to return my equipment back to the store? I uploaded some of my prints developed at Costo. It happened to all my prints. PLEASE HELP. Thank You very much for your help.
- Mike Ho

See Sample Photo - Pic 3:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGallDetail.asp?photoID=258797

See Sample Photo - Pic 2:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGallDetail.asp?photoID=258796

See Sample Photo - Pic 1:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGallDetail.asp?photoID=258795

ANSWER 3:
Hi, Mike.

For the flash not coming on for night shots, the flash will pop up automatically when it's dark if shooting in "green box" and most of the PIC modes. In the "creative modes" (P, Av, Tv, M), if you want flash you have to turn it on manually.

I'll take a stab at the pictures you posted:

Picture 1 is a typical result of auto-flash at night. The problem I see is the lab printed the print too light, causing the subject's shirt to be too bright losing detail, and the background sky is mottled instead of black. But the printer (or the automated machine) chose this because so much of the scene is dark, it was printed lighter to show detail in the tree. It looks like this was taken in either "green box" or P mode. These modes choose a higher shutter speed of 1/60-1/125, which limits the exposure given to the background (lit Christmas tree). The flash can only illuminate near subjects. To give more exposure to the background tree & lights, you'd need to select a longer shutter speed in either the Night Portrait PIC mode, or choosing the M, Tv, or Av modes.

Picture 2 is just a difficult exposure, even for all auto camera. There is a bright white wall in sunshine dominating 1/2 the scene, and a medium dark-skinned subject's face is shaded by the bill of the hat. The camera chose an average exposure, and appears to be somewhat under-exposed at that. A scene with bright background and subject in shadow (or their forehead creating dark shadows over the eyes) calls for fill flash (manually turn the flash on) which will give a pop from the flash to light the near subject's face, but not affect the background.

Picture 3 is just seriously underexposed. The camera might be defective or need professional adjustment (Picture 2 looked underexposed a bit as well), but first make sure you haven't accidentally set the camera's ISO higher than the film loaded, or accidentally set Exposure Compensation to a negative value. Exposure Compensation only affects shooting in the Creative Modes (P, Av, Tv) but will remain in effect until it is set back to 0, even if you load new film or turn the camera off. Ordinarily the camera will automatically set the ISO for the film loaded (DX coded on the film can). But if the ISO has been set manually it will be in effect for all picture taking modes, but will cancel when you load new film.
- Jon Close

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7797

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7797

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*****


NEW QUESTION 8: Digital To Transparencies?
Hi!

I have the opportunity to submit some of my pics for possible publication. Problem is, they require submissions to be transparencies.

I'm sort of new to this. Are transparencies really slides?

If so, is there somewhere I can take my .JPG files and have them made into traditional slides?

Thanks and best regards
- Kim

ANSWER 1:
Kim,

Yes, transparencies are slides. What format did you shoot in? Print film or digital? There are ways to have a slide made, but it is very costly. I don't know of a place where you can get it done right off. You might want to try calling Calypso Imaging. Their site is www.calypsoinc.com.
- Chris L. Hurtt

See Chris's Premium BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7793

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http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7793

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*****


NEW QUESTION 9: Camera Settings for Best Prints
I am using Sony Mavica CD200 camera and Epson cx5400 printer. What are the best settings for each to get the best quality pictures? I read that tif setting was best, but what about fine/standard, etc. Thanks.
- Penny Deig

ANSWER 1:
You are lucky if you have a tif setting. That means that your image is not compressed at all, giving you more to work with in the imaging software. (If you don't have an imaging software, go with Elements 2.) The down side of tif is that the images take up a LOT more space on storage cards, so you have to buy bigger cards. I consider that a worthwhile trade-off, others disagree.
Your fine setting probably gives you some JPEG compression, but hopefully not enough to wreck the structural and color integrity of the image. Most people would find pictures shot with your camera in the fine mode perfectly acceptable. Standard and lower settings compress your pictures for the sake of convenience, and you must be careful not to do a lot of edits and saves in your software, or you will wreck them.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

ANSWER 2:
I failed earlier to address your print settings. Go into the imaging software and in Image/Image Size uncheck Resample, check Constrained Proportions, and enter 240 for the resolution. You will see the image size shrink to a printable size. If the print size that comes up is not to your liking, enter the long dimension, and the shorter dimension and the resolution will be calculated for you. If the resolution falls between 240 and about 300 you're good to go. If it's over 300, don't worry about it. Use the printer company's photo quality paper. If your resolution is 240-300, a 720 dpi setting wil be fine. If it's over 300, use the printer's highest dpi setting and see what prints out. I am not familiar with that printer; I am basing it on my Epson 870. See the article on Printing on my web site.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7785

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=7785

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - CONTINUING FROM PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

CONTINUING QUESTION 1: Starting Out in Photography
Hi, I'm very interested in photography and just got my first camera. I'd like to start my way to becoming a pro - could someone tell me where do I start?
I want to mainly photograph horses but I don't want to stick to just one area.
If someone could help that would be great.

Thanks
- Rachel E. Youngs

ANSWER 1:
Hi Rachel: First of all, congrats on getting your first camera! As for where to start, you've certainly come to the perfect place - BetterPhoto! Ideally, your photographic development should involve the following:

- Get out and shoot WHENEVER you can. Along the way, try to slow down and really think about your subject and about the best way to photograph it (i.e., horizontal or vertical format, moving in closer or to the side, zooming in or zooming out, etc.). This process is the first step in proceeding beyond the snapshot stage!

- Read absolutely EVERYTHING you can about photography - from BetterPhoto's how-to articles/discussions to print magazines to how-to books.

- Look at photographs at EVERY opportunity. This includes magazines and books, of course, but also the wonderful photography displayed right here at BetterPhoto ... including the winners and finalists of current and past contests, AND the work of individual photographers at their Premium BetterPholios™ or Deluxe BetterPholios™.

- When you see a photo you like, try to figure out what you like it - i.e., the light, the composition, the angle of view, etc. If you're not sure how a particular technique was used in a BP discussion or contest photo, then be sure and ask the photographer!

- An important tip about looking at great photography: Do NOT get discouraged ... after all, absolutely every experienced photographer started out as a beginner, too!

- Also, be sure to check out BP's excellent lineup of online courses - and consider signing up for a class ... if not for the Winter session, then perhaps the Spring session. Online education can be a relatively easy - and enjoyable - way to quickly boost your skills!

- As your own photography develops, you'll want to start paying attention to how and where photos are sold - i.e., cards or prints at a local gallery or shop; magazines, calendars and other print publications; online outlets; portrait or studio work; stock photo agencies, etc.

Hope this helps, Rachel ... good luck!
- Kerry A. Drager

See Kerry Drager's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Kerry Drager's Deluxe BetterPholio™ - KerryDrager.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Kerry Drager:
Beyond Snapshots
Field Techniques
Course Extension

ANSWER 2:
Hi Kerry,

Thanks so much for you info its really opened my eyes. I'm getting out and now looking at everything as a photo.
I can't believe how much is out there that would make good photos. I see everyday things in a different way.
The info on BP is great to.
Thanks so much for your help Kerry.
Hope you'll see my photos around.
- Rachel E. Youngs

ANSWER 3:
Hi Rachel: Thanks for the follow-up ... I'm so glad I could be of help!! All the best in your photographic pursuits!!
- Kerry A. Drager

See Kerry Drager's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Kerry Drager's Deluxe BetterPholio™ - KerryDrager.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Kerry Drager:
Beyond Snapshots
Field Techniques
Course Extension

ANSWER 4:
Hi Rachel:

Your local library is a good place to start with reading materials and some areas have photography clubs where members get together once a month to discuss photography.
- Carey Yazeed

ANSWER 5:
Hi Carey

Thanks I'll look into a photography club. Sound like they would be good.

Thanks
- Rachel E. Youngs

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=7689

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*****


CONTINUING QUESTION 2: Shutter Speeds and Apertures
I am a young keen person who wants to learn more about photography and taking good photos. My question is, can I get a general idea on what kind of aperture settings I need for what kind of photos and what shutter speeds I need to use with it?

I know aperture lets in a certain amount of light but I'm really not sure how to set one in a certain situation.
- Jeff

ANSWER 1:
Jeff,
In addition to letting in light, your aperture setting determines your depth of field,... or how much of what you are shooting will be in focus. The higher the f-stop number... the more depth of field you will have.

As a rule, the lower the aperature number (f-stop), the less light is needed for exposure. Hence, the wider f-stops (lower numbers) require a faster shutter speed than when the lens is stopped down (higher numbers).

As an example, let's say that your in-camera meter calls for an exposure of f-8 at 1/60 second. Each change in aperature setting must be met with a corosponding change in the shutter speed to maintain proper exposure. F-11 becomes 1/30 second, f-16 becomes 1/15... etc.
With that knowledge in mind, you should choose your aperture and/or shutter speed to suit the situation you are are faced with. A faster shutter speed might be needed to freeze action, so you would require a wide aperature (low f-stop number). Conversely, when shooting a landscape, you want as much in focus as possible from the foreground to infinity, so you would choose a higher aperture number (f-22 for example), and a slower shutter speed.
Once you've determined what f-stop the scene requires, you can usually trust your in-camera meter to guide you toward the corresponding shutter speed, (and vice-versa).

You should also try shooting the same scene using different settings and compare the results.

Hope this helps.
- Bob Cammarata

Visit cammphoto.com - Bob's Deluxe BetterPholio™

ANSWER 2:
Jeff,
If you're interested in learning more about photography basics I would highly recommend taking a beginning photography course such as those offered on this site. A good analogy for aperture/shutter speed is to compare light with water. To get a proper exposure you need a certain amount of water(light). Your aperture is the hose diameter, and your shutter speed is the faucet. To get the proper amount of water you can either use a small diameter hose and leave the faucet on longer, or you can use a larger diameter hose and turn the faucet off sooner. This is simplistic, but a good example of the relationship. Hope this is helpful.
God Bless,
Greg
- Greg McCroskery

See Greg's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 3:
Jeff,
I recommend taking Bryan Peterson's Understanding Exposure course through this website. He covers EVERYTHING for basic exposure. I learned a great deal from his course.
- David T. Burke

ANSWER 4:
First---you gotta inform us if you use either a manual or autofocus camera. Or if you are a digital user. One good book/magazine I highly recommend is The Big Book of Photography (FROM Photographic magazine). Its very educational---my friends even borrowed it from me! Enjoy your new cam and try the contests you see here!
- Buddy Purugganan

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