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SNAPSHOT - PHOTO NEWS FROM BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to SnapShot, the weekly newsletter on
the art of photography from
BetterPhoto.com


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IN THIS ISSUE - Tuesday, February 11, 2003
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* SPOTLIGHT: Display All of Your Favorite Photos in a Deluxe BetterPholio™
* BETTERPHOTO: BetterPhoto Welcomes Our Newest Instructor - Vik Orenstein
* BETTERPHOTO: That Makes Five New Online PhotoCourses™
* BETTERPHOTO: BetterPhoto's Tried-And-True Online PhotoCourses™
* PHOTO TRIVIA QUESTION: Do What You Love / Ready to Wear
* THIS WEEK'S TIP: EZ Depth of Field
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 1: How to Properly Adjust Aperture/Shutter Speed
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 2: How to Start Up Your Own Photo Studio?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 3: Inkjet Printers
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 4: BetterPhoto Online Course Questions
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 5: Books on Digital Imaging
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 6: A question for all the PhotoShop Gurus!
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 7: 16x20 Prints from a Cannon D60?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 8: PhotoShop HELP!
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 9: Macro Photography Accessories
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 10: Creating Email Sized Digital Photo
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 11: Macro Lens
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 12: Mamiya Camera
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 13: Copyright
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 14: Shooting a Brilliant Blue River
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 1: Pulling Film
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 2: International Freelance Photographers Organization


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IN THE SPOTLIGHT - ADVERTISEMENT
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Display All of Your Favorite Photos in a Deluxe BetterPholio™
Have you heard? With a Deluxe BetterPholio™, you can now display up to 1000 images! In as little as 24-48 hours, you can have a Web site that displays all of your favorite photos. No worries about bandwidth, no need to learn Frontpage or FTP software... our Deluxe BetterPholio™ solutions give you a ONE STOP SHOP for getting your portfolio on the Web. Sign up for a Deluxe BetterPholio™ at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/login.asp?productID=1007

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WHAT'S NEW AT BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to the 104th issue of SnapShot!

Hi

Welcome to this week's edition of Snapshot! We have a very exciting line-up of courses for the April-June session. In addition to our tried-and-true courses, we have added five new fun classes!

The judges are working on the January contest and hope to have the voting finished later this week. But with over 5000 images entered, this is a daunting task. Keep checking BetterPhoto's home page to see if the winners are posted.

We hope you are having a great February and gearing up for a fun Valentine's Day.

Have fun shooting this week!
Jim Miotke
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoContact.asp?memberID=124


*****
BetterPhoto Welcomes Our Newest Instructor - Vik Orenstein
We are very pleased to welcome a new addition to the BetterPhoto team of instructors.

Vik Orenstein, child portrait photographer and author of "Creative Techniques in Photographing Children", joins BetterPhoto to teach two new classes - "Photographing Children" and "Studio Lighting Techniques". Her book quickly became a classic on photographing children and made Vik a world-renowned authority on the subject. She has appeared frequently on television shows with advice on how to take great pictures of kids.

How would you like to get fabulous photos of kids? Then join Vik Orenstein's 8-week photo course, "Photographing Children". You will learn how to work with kids and make unique, creative, and memorable portraits every time:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/VIK01.asp

Have you ever wished you could learn all about studio lighting - from a professional? Learn step-by-step lighting methods in Vik's course, "Studio Lighting Techniques". In this 8-week course, Vik shows you how to light various kinds of backgrounds, groups of people, dramatic headshots, and much more:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/VIK02.asp


*****
That Makes Five New Online PhotoCourses™
In addition to Vik's two courses, we have added three other new courses. Here's the line-up of our five new 8-week course offerings:

By Kerry Drager, "Field Techniques - Dynamic Outdoor Photography" teaches you how to capture eye-catching images of the great outdoors. In this course, Kerry takes you through a survey of subjects such as silhouettes, wide-angle scenics, people in the landscape, and more:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/KRD02.asp

Want better flower photos? From Tony Sweet, you can now learn the ins and outs of capturing the most beautiful and creative flower images in "Fine Art Flower Photography":
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/TNS02.asp

Jim Zuckerman's new 8-week course entitled "Mastering Light" shows you how to effectively use both natural light and flash. The first four weeks explore the possibilities of available light and the final four weeks teach you how to make the most of artificial flash:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JZK02.asp

Learn more about these five new courses at:
http://www.betterphoto.com/workshops.asp


*****
BetterPhoto's Tried-And-True Online PhotoCourses™
In addition to these fun new photo classes, we will also be offering the following 8-week online photography courses:

With instructor Jim Miotke:
"Beginning Photography" - 8 weeks can shave years off your learning curve:

http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JCM01.asp

"Photoshop for Photographers" - learn this cool software in 8 easy weeks:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JCM02.asp

With instructor Bryan Peterson:
"Understanding Exposure"
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/BFP02.asp

"Learning to See Creatively"
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/BFP01.asp

"Photo Marketing" - you deserve to start doing what you love for a living!
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/BFP03.asp

"Beyond Snapshots: Making the Most of your Equipment" - 8 weeks with Kerry Drager:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/KRD01.asp

"Eight Steps to More Dramatic Photography" - 8 weeks with Jim Zuckerman:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JZK01.asp

"Image Design: Revealing your Personal Vision" - 8 weeks with Tony Sweet:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/TNS01.asp

With so many high-quality photography courses to choose from, there's something for everyone! Each 8-week course offers interactive learning between you and the instructor, personal critiques of your photos, as well as inspiring weekly lessons and assignments.

The next session of courses begins April 9th and ends June 9th - just in time for your summer travel plans. Make this year's trip a photographic success... sign up for a photo course today!
http://www.betterphoto.com/workshops.asp


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PHOTO TRIVIA QUIZ OF THE WEEK
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Last week, we asked:
In which movie does Sandra Bullock's character turn to her interest in photography to make a little extra dough?

The first, best answer - entered by BettterPhoto member Amanda H. is:
HOPE FLOATS!

[Editor: Wow... I am impressed, Amanda. You answered this correctly even before I got the SnapShot newsletter sent! Good job!]

To see all answers to this question, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp?stat=PRV

And Now... This Week's Photo Trivia Question - Ready to Wear - entered by BettterPhoto member Jim M.

What arena of photography is parodied in the movie Ready to Wear?

Submit your own answer to this question by visiting:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp

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THIS WEEK'S PHOTO TIP
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EZ Depth of Field
Depth of field is actually a lot easier to grasp than most photo teachers make it sound in school. All you have to remember is that the bigger number you choose (the bigger aperture or f-stops), the more depth of field you will achieve. And more depth of field means more of your picture in focus.

Top Ten Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/tips.asp

All Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/allTips.asp

Add Your Own Tip:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/login.asp?category=tip&inputType=tip

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ADVERTISEMENT
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Absolute Beginner's Guide to Taking Great Photos
My new book guides you away from the point-and-pray method of taking pictures to shooting with confidence. In this simple and clear how-to book, you will learn:

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8609 173rd Ave NE
Redmond, WA 98052 USA

To order online, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/product/ourProductDetail.asp?productID=1096


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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - NEW THIS WEEK
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NEW QUESTION 1: How to Properly Adjust Aperture/Shutter Speed
Hey everybody! I too am a rookie looking for some GOOD advice. I'm currently taking a class in which we use slide film & our cameras in manual mode. I don't have much experience with manual settings, so my problem is adjusting aperture to correlate with the shutter Speed and vice versa. My teacher just breezed thru reciprocity & I just can't seem to grasp which direction you adjust to get the same exposures. My camera shows either "+" or "-" and I have a very difficult time finding balance or the correct exposure. I need someone to just say "If you don't have enough light, ie you have "-" on display you need to move this many stops, and this number of seconds on your shutter speed..." Can anyone break this down for me in a simple way? I have even been reading some on this, but I just don't get it. Seems so simple and yet it ELUDES me :) Please help me. I will be so grateful.

- Kelly

ANSWER 1:
Probably the most important thing to understand are your apertures (since the shutter speeds are pretty self explanatory). The larger the number of your f-stop the smaller the opening in your lens. Therefore, when you shoot at a high numbered aperture (like f22) you will let less light in and consequently have to use a slower (longer) shutter speed.

It's like filling up a bucket with water. If you don't turn the water on very high and it's just trickling (f22) then you have to leave it on longer (slower shutter speed) to fill up your bucket (your correct exposure). If you crank up the water (large aperture like f2.8) then you don't leave the water on as long (fast shutter speed) to fill up your bucket (correct exposure).

Now, notice that each shutter speed is half (or twice depending on which direction you're going) of the next shutter speed. This means that 1/30 will let in in twice as much light as 1/60. Now, your f-stops work the same way. Each stop is half (or twice depending on which way you're going) of the next one. So f4 lets in twice as much light as f5.6. So if you take a reading of 1/60 @ f4 and want to use a smaller aperture for more depth of field you can go to f5.6. But now that you've closed the aperture down one stop you have eliminated half the light. So to fill up the bucket (correct exposure) you have to let it shine on the film for twice as long. So you have to use a shutter speed of 1/30. So your new exposure is 1/30 @ f5.6.

Hope that helps.

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 2:
I know the feeling about a teacher who just barely covers the basics. Anyway, one thing I did realize helped is the explanation using the water bucket example shown above. One other thing is a scale of f-stops and shutter speeds. The scale of F-stops is normally:
1.4, 2.0, 2.8, 4.0, 5.6, 8.0, 11.0, 16.0, 22.0 and 32.0. As covered before, the lower the number, the more light it lets in.
Shutter speeds are usually 1/4000, 1/2000, 1/1000, 1/500, 1/250 1/125, 1/60, 1/30, 1/16, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, and so on. The lower the number, the slower the longer the shutter stays open. There are other shutter speeds at both ends of the scale but the ones above are used on most mdern cameras.

Many films have a scale of aperature and shutter speeds. Most films have the sunny 16 rule and settings shown on the inside of the box.

Reciprocity effects occurr at shutter speeds of one second or longer. The settings to use to avoid this problem vary slightly from film to film. The best way to judge the correct settings may be to check the websites for Kodak and Fuji. Also, John Shaw covers a little of the settings in his book.

- Bill M.

ANSWER 3:
Thank you Jeff & Bill for the wonderful responses!!! I just shot this week's assigment for class keeping your explanation in mind. I think the bucket reference is just great. It makes perfect sense to me. I'm really glad I decided to ask for help. Thanks again :) I'm sure I will be staying in touch.

- Kelly

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=5109

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=5109

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NEW QUESTION 2: How to Start Up Your Own Photo Studio?
My question is, what all do you need to have a home photography studio (equipment and accessories)?

- Sabrina C.

ANSWER 1:
Sabrina, I have gone through many stages with my "home studio". I can give you the most basic of guidance on this.

I started with desk lamps and fabric for backdrops. Then later I purchased foam board for backgrounds and a couple of flood lamps from the hardware store. THEN, I had my husband build a backdrop hanger out of PVC pipe and I purchased an auto light from the hardware store. LIGHT, very important to my digital. Just recently, my husband purchased a lighting kit for me consisting of three floods and diffusers. Before this, all expenses were next to nothing. Even this kit was affordable. I would suggest reflectors and or softboxes with such bright lights. You can also get creative with gels and express with color without changing your background. Oh yeah, I also purchased some basic white window shades. On one side of one I sponged black and pearl to create a smooth texture of gray for more professional portraits.

Denise Miotke has a wonderful article on making backdrops at this site http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/MakingBackDrops.asp

Also, if you are interested in still lifes and want to make an inexpensive box studio, refer to this article http://www3.photosig.com/viewarticle.php?id=933
I hope at least some of this helps.

- Shelley S.

See Shelley's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=17432

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=5098

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*****
NEW QUESTION 3: Inkjet Printers
I am planning to buy an Epson 1280 inkjet printer and have read many reviews on Epson printers. What I'm wondering is, are these printers just used for personal use or are the prints good enough for professionals to actually sell to clients? The stores I have been to are printing out photos on typing paper and so I am relying on reviews for my information. Also is the Epson 1280 a good choice? Thank you for any help you can offer!

- Emily G.

ANSWER 1:
I have the same printer, only the smaller size. I think they're more than adequate for personal use. People are amazed that they are inkjet prints. I would not hestitate to use them for a photo retouch business, but I would give the customer a CD with the printable file on it as well. For something like a portrait business, I'd be more cautious. Suppose these prints fade, even on Epson's best paper in 25 years, even if they're not hung in the sun?
Check out Epson's newer printers by checking back issues of Shutterbug. There have been some leaps forward in ink and paper quality. Unfortunately, we're looking at at least $500 for the printer; one goes for $900.
Another issue is that the colors you see on your monitor will hardly ever be exactly the same in a print. As a minimum, do the Adobe Gamma drill that comes with Photoshop, and also buy into one of these calibration set-ups as well. (I've been rather indecisive on this issue, and haven't tried one, so can't recommend one.) Even so, don't expect an exact color match every time. Selling inkjet prints to customers puts you on the cutting edge of the technology. It IS continually getting better and cheaper, but you may find yourself jumping through a lot of hoops trying to keep up. But then, you can write off the "hoops" on your taxes. I know a pro who does weddings and portraits. He's convinced that shooting film, and having a trustworthy lab do the printing is still the best way for him.

- Doug N.

See Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™:
http://www.DougNelsonPhoto.com

ANSWER 2:
Doug, thank you for your quick response. I am a total novice at photography but was curious at just how good these printers are. They certainly get rave reviews. I was given an entry level scanner, Pacific Image, Prime Film 1800 for Christmas which has given me a better image to work with and wanted to upgrade my printer and read about the Epson's. I have read about the Epson 2200 and how good it is but don't know if it makes sense since my use is purely for myself, family etc.
Also, I have visited your web site and you have wonderful photographs and alot of very useful information. Maybe one day I'll have something good enough to share! Thanks for your help!

- Emily G.

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4968

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=4968

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*****
NEW QUESTION 4: BetterPhoto Online Course Questions
1. When taking a picture is it ok to use Auto focus or are we suppose to be manually taking the pictures?

2. With regards to quality. the picture to be no larger than 500-750 pixels. Am I better off taking the picture with more pixels and then resizing the picture to upload?

3. My pictures have been coming out with a blue tint I have been enhancing them with Photo shop. For this class should I be touching the pictures up or should I be submitting my untouched photo?

- Joann F.

See Joann's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=33739

ANSWER 1:
Hi Joann,

1. Yes, it is okay to use autofocus for this assignment.

2. You can either shoot in a lower resolution mode or a higher resolution mode. I myself prefer to shoot in a high res mode, so that I can also use the images for printing purposes.

3. It is also okay to use Photoshop to fix up your images before uploading. If it helps you get the blue tint out, that is exactly the right thing for you to do.

See you in the Campus Square!

- Jim at BetterPhoto.com

See Jim's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=124

Take a photo course with Jim:
http://www.betterphoto.com/workshops.asp

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4944

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=4944

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*****
NEW QUESTION 5: Books on Digital Imaging
Would you please recommend some books on both traditional and digital photo-taking technique. I am a beginning for photographing, barely know nothing about it.

Thank you for your help.

- David

ANSWER 1:
On digital, go to http://www.homeandoffice.hp.com/hho/us/eng/digital_photography.html and let Hewlett-Packard tell you about digital in general. Hit the library and look there. On general photography, see if your camera store has the Kodak Guide to 35-mm Photography. Last, and maybe best, go the home page of this site and order Jim Miotke's book The Absolute Beginner's Guide to Taking Great Photos.



- Doug N.

See Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™:
http://www.DougNelsonPhoto.com

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4930

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=4930

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*****
NEW QUESTION 6: A question for all the PhotoShop Gurus!
A question for all the PhotoShop guru's out there - I need your help!
I'm having major difficulties resizing images to the proper size for printing. The 8x10's usually aren't a problem, but 5x7 & 4x6 seems to be eluding me! I can get them close, but using the constrain proportions option in the print dialogue, I can never seem to get them to the correct size. My current dilema is for 4x6 prints. When I tell PS to scale to fit media, I usually get something much smaller than what I want.
I consider myself a moderately advanced PS user, but this one's killing me! Anyone have any suggestions?

- Denny M.

See Denny's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=33561

ANSWER 1:
Hi Denny,

Off the top of my head, I would guess that the problem is one of aspect ratio. Your images are probably portionably comparable to 8 x 10 (i.e. and 800 x 1000 pixel would be the same ratio as 8" x 10" but a 800 x 1200 pixel image would be longer... less of a square). So when you try to fit your 800 x 1000 image into a 4" x 6" aspect ration, you will have an inch of dead space on either end.

There is no way around it other than:

a) cropping your image to that is uses all real estate of the paper at the expense of cutting away some of your image, or

b) cutting off the dead ends of your prints.

Hope this helps.

- Jim at BetterPhoto.com

See Jim's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=124

Take a photo course with Jim:
http://www.betterphoto.com/workshops.asp

ANSWER 2:
Jim,
Thanks for the response!
Yes, I think it helps - I normally shoot with my Nikon Coolpix 4500 at the "fine" image quality setting (the highest resolution avail. w/.jpg compression), with an image size of 2272x1704. If I know I want 4x6 prints when I'm shooting a session, would you recommend a smaller image size setting? And, if I shoot at a smaller image size, am I going to lose any quality if I do print at 8x10? I guess I don't quite have the ratio relationship down correctly yet.
Thanks in advance,
Denny

- Denny M.

See Denny's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=33561

ANSWER 3:
Hi Denny,

No problem. There are two different issues at hand:

1) Resolution for max quality. Yes, I would recommend keeping it at as high of a image size as you can, if you want to print. Even 4 x 6 prints will benefit from the larger pixel dimensions.

2) Ratio. This is the relationship between the width of the image and its height. A square has a relationship of 1 to 1 while a retangle might likely have a ratio of 1 to 1 1/2.

- Jim at BetterPhoto.com

See Jim's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=124

Take a photo course with Jim:
http://www.betterphoto.com/workshops.asp

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4924

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=4924

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*****
NEW QUESTION 7: 16x20 Prints from a Cannon D60?
It was noted that Cannon D60 is a 6.3 Megapixel, is this enough to make a 16x20 print?

- Al

ANSWER 1:
Certainly. I have colleagues who use D30's and make 16x20's from those files. There are ways of interpolating images in Photoshop to increase enlargement quality as well.

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 2:
Try it with one of your highest resolution images files. Open it in Photoshop, Image/Image Size, uncheck Resample, check Constrain Proportions, and enter the longer dimension (length if a horizontal, height if vertical). You will see the resulting resolution appear in the resolution block. Print it and see if you're happy with the results. Keeping in mind that the normal viewing distance with a 16 x 20 is pretty far, it may be OK, even if the resolution you feed into the printer is less than the generally accepted minimum 240 ppi. If you want/need better quality (ink dots less apparent), try checking Resample and increase the resolution AND the dimensions to 240. Better do it in small steps. Pros use a program especially for this called Genuine Fractals. If you do a lot of this, try GF.

- Doug N.

See Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™:
http://www.DougNelsonPhoto.com

ANSWER 3:
Actually, there's a better way than Genuine Fractals to enlarge images in Photoshop. You go into image size and enter the size you want to go to and make a note of the resulting file size. Don't click ok yet. Now, go back to the original size. Then under document size switch from inches to percent and enter 110%. Now click ok. Continue to do this until you get close to your target file size. Once there you can nudge it to the exact size you wanted. I've seen comparisons between this method and GF and this is just as good if not better. Best of all it costs you nothing!

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 4:
Thanks, Jeff. By helping Al, you've taught me something, too.

- Doug N.

See Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™:
http://www.DougNelsonPhoto.com

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4921

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*****
NEW QUESTION 8: PhotoShop HELP!
Can someone kind of walk me through how to remove the date on this photo and others that I have taken. My date inprint was stuck. I have since had it fixed, but in the meantime I have many photos that are ruined. Thank you for any pointers!

- Elaine M.

See Sample Photo - My daughter Amanda.:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGallDetail.asp?photoID=68064

See Elaine's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=30743

ANSWER 1:
Have you tried the Clone Tool (Rubber Stamp) or the Healing Brush (if you have 7.0)?

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 2:
For information, go to the "All About Photography" of this site. Then go to "Digital Imaging" and select "Removing Unwanted Elements". Isn't this site great?

Click here for a direct link to the article on BetterPhoto


- Andy

ANSWER 3:
THANK YOU! THANK YOU! THANK YOU!!!!

- Elaine M.

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*****
NEW QUESTION 9: Macro Photography Accessories
Hi every one and happy new year. Feels good to join you again. My question is about macro photo accessories. I am getting a bit lost in the jargon e.g. close-up lens, 2x magnification ring, macro lens, extension tube, etc.

What do I really need? Thank you for your answers.

- Anthony M.

ANSWER 1:
The close-up lens screws onto the front of the lens like a filter. It allows you to get a larger image on film by allowing you to focus at a closer distance than the lens alone is capable. They come in different powers (measured in diopters +1, +2, etc), I don't know how that relates to the resulting image size. Canon's close up lenses models are 250 and 500, which refer instead to how much closer they allow you to focus (250 = .25 m, 500 = .5 m). A close-up lens does not affect the aperture, but you will lose infinity focus. 2 element achromatic models are preferred over those with just a single element.

A 1.4x or 2x teleconverter (aka extender, multiplier,) magnifies the image by increasing the focal length while leaving the minimum close focus and infinity focus of the lens unchanged. Because the focal lenth is increased but the nominal aperture diameter is the same, using a 1.4x teleconverter makes the effective aperture 1 stop smaller (f/4 becomes f/5.6), a 2x loses 2 stops (f/4 becomes f/8).

An extension tube fits between the lens and the camera body. It has no optical elements, but allows closer focusing giving higher magnification. Common extension tube lengths are 12mm and 25mm, or 12mm, 20mm, and 36mm. They can be stacked for even greater extension. Using extension tubes also changes the effective aperture of the lens. At http://www.thkphoto.com/catalog/k/tubeset.html there is a chart showing the magnification and additional f/stops added (exposure factor) when using different length extension tubes with a 50mm lens.

- Jon C.

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=4905

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*****
NEW QUESTION 10: Creating Email Sized Digital Photo
To whom it may concern,
I just purchased a Minolta Dimage, 4 megapixels, it comes with a dimage viewer which allows you to download and then print your photos. What I am not sure about is how to get the original photo which might be at 2, 3, or 4 megapixels down to a smaller size, thumbnail so I can then email the photo. I'm not sure what to do. Also do I have to shoot at less pixels or is that irrelevant when downsizing to email size. Also, do I want to get to a thumbnail which will then blow up after it is emailed as an attachment? Thank you.

- Hari H.

ANSWER 1:
You might eventually want to get Elements or Photoshop LE, both of which are based on full Photoshop. When you read up on digital or ask for help, you answers will nearly always be in terms of Photoshop.

Four MP is a generously-sized image. You can make prints beyond 8 x 10, if you shoot full resolution. First of all, archive your shots worth saving to CD. The JPEG downsizing process wrecks them for printing, because you can't recover thrown-out pixels.

If your shots are not already in the JPEG format, your software should have a way to let you do that. It will downsize the resolution to about 72 pixels-per-inch, and into pixel dimensions for screen viewing. I don't know whether your software does this all in one whack, or whether you have to set the resolution, then the image size, then save it as a JPEG. If you can't get this info out of Minolta, buy and install Elements.

- Doug N.

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NEW QUESTION 11: Macro Lens
Hi all,

I am interested to buy a macro lens for my Canon D60, I own extension tubes but I didn't find it realy confortable to use.

180 f3.5 L macro is realy out of budjet for me.
Please can you give me some advice for shooting all those beautifull small creatures and flowers?

thanks!

- Jean-François S.

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ANSWER 1:
How about the other Canon macro lens, EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM. It's about US$450.

- Andy

ANSWER 2:
Look at the Canon EOS 50-mm macro. Since your D60 has a magnification factor of about 1.4 (the CCD is smaller than the standard 35-mm frame), the 50 becomes a 75.
For another option, here's an instance where an FD to EOS adapter does exist and will work (although I have not used it). This adapter was made by Canon, although there are copies. This adapter DOES NOT have a glass element. It does not allow focus to infinity, but you don't focus to infinity with macro, anyway. With this adapter, you can use an FD or an FL 50-mm f3.5 macro lens. You'll have to stop the lens down to shooting aperture, I think.
If you can't find the Canon 50 macro with the 1:1 adapter, just use a 25-mm extension tube, which does the same thing. The whole set-up may run $200. OR it'd be cheaper still to buy a used FD body (F-1, FTb, TX, TLb) and just use it with an FD or FL 50 or 100-mm macro. Autofocus is no help with macro, anyway.

- Doug N.

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ANSWER 3:
Thanks for your answers.

If I have good understanding of your answer, the Canon 50 mm macro is good enough with a magnification factor of 1.6 (D60 does), adaptor seem to be like my extension tube, only useful on very short distance.

Another question: did someone have some review about the Sigma 50 mm macro? Good or bad?

- Jean-François S.

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ANSWER 4:
Sigma is a respectable maker, and probably cheaper than Canon. Buy it in the EOS mount, so you don't need an FD-to-EOS adapter. Does it give a 1:1 image? It may be a good answer for you.

- Doug N.

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*****
NEW QUESTION 12: Mamiya Camera
I'm thinking about getting a new camera. Does anyone have any comments on the performance of the Mamiya camera (any of them)?

- Kris

ANSWER 1:
Go to luminous-landscape.com and read his articles on the Mamiya 7II, a 6 x 7 format rangefinder. The camera is $1000, and $1000 for each lens. Mamiya makes other medium format cameras, but no longer makes 35-mm.

- Doug N.

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ANSWER 2:
Thanks! Will do!

- Kris

ANSWER 3:
I have an old RB67 and an old 35mm rangefinder camera made by Mamiya. They are both great cameras. The RB is heavy duty. I looked around at all the various MF camera mfg'rs and decided on the RB for a few reasons. It is a modular camera with tons of accessories and lenses available for it. It uses leaf shutter lenses so you can flash sync at all speeds. The bellows focussing allows closer focussing than other MF cameras. I like the 6x7 format and rotating backs. On the whole I think the prices are more reasonable than Hassies where you seem to be paying a lot for the name and you end up with a camera that can't focus as close and is only 6x6.

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 4:
Thanks a bunch! This is great info.

- Kris

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*****
NEW QUESTION 13: Copyright
This is a two-pronged question.
How do you copyright a photograph?
Second, if a color landscape picture is accepted for publication in a magazine, can the black and white picture of the same scene shot on a different film be submitted for publication in another magazine as an original never been published photo?. Thanks for your help and keep up the good work of keep us amateurs informed.

- Farrin M.

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ANSWER 1:
Once you create a photo, it becomes yours (make sure to get model/property releases if applicable). You own the copyright, regardless of whether or not you register it with the U.S. Copyright Office.

If something is going to be published, you should make sure and check if you're selling the rights to that image or if you retain them.

A different photo is a different photo and can be published elsewhere and the issue begins again with what you're selling....

hth

- Damian G.

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NEW QUESTION 14: Shooting a Brilliant Blue River
Hi. I am about to travel to New Zealand and there is the most amazing 'blue' river there known as the Hoka Falls. Last time I was there I did not have the camera - I have now and just shot with a Canon Powershot compact, but the photos came out nothing like what I saw. This time around I will be shooting with a Canon EOS 30. I have in my arsenal: 50mm portrait; 28-80mm zoom; 75-300mm zoom; 19-35mm wide angle; plus cl polarising filters for the zoom and wide angle lens. Should I use slide or negative film? Slow or fast film?

The blue that I am trying to describe is amazing, however the river does run fairly fast and there is some white water in it. I would be there around the middle of the day (this is unavoidable) and I will have a nearly 3 year old running around my feet so timing is everything!! Thank you in advance for your advice.
Kim from Oz!

P.S. are there any major precautions I should be taking in regard to getting my cameras and film through security (x-ray) checks etc?

- Kim

ANSWER 1:
If you want the color you see, try Fuji Provia 100, a slide film. If you are in freeze action situations, try the 400 speed Provia. If you consistently get proper exposures with your equipment, you can pretty safely expect good exposures with slide film.
Don't worry abot x-rays, as long as your film is in your CARRY ON bag, and not your checked bag.

- Doug N.

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ANSWER 2:
Doug, thank you so much for that, I have noted it down and will get that film before I go. I had a look at your site and it has given me some inspiration for my travelling pics. Many thanks again.
Kim from Oz!

- Kim

ANSWER 3:
Since you mentioned inspiration, I'll tell you where I get mine. I look at the contest entries on this site for the fresh ways of seeing these younger photographers come up with.

As a safety measure when you travel, ASK for hand inspection of your film (out of the boxes, in a transparent bag). Although you may get it tossed onto the conveyor anyway, depending on the whim of the inspector, the the law says you're supposed to get hand inspection if you ask.

- Doug N.

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - CONTINUING FROM PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER
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CONTINUING QUESTION 1: Pulling Film
Oops! Just shot a roll of Portra 160 at ISO 50 by mistake. Had Velvia in there last, I guess. My camera (Nikon N90s) sometimes mis-captures the correct DX coding on my film, and I forgot to check it this time.

I know it's cool to push film on purpose and then have it processed at the push-rated ISO, but what will happen when I tell the lab to "pull" this roll back to 50 when processing? How many stops is this anyway?! Two stops? Two-1/2? Is it possible to get adequate results from pull-processing?

Thanks in advance.

- Piper L.

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ANSWER 1:
You know, now that I think about it, I wonder if I accidentally changed the ISO mid roll when fumbling around for the exposure mode button. It's right beside the ISO button. What are my options here? Have the lab pull it like above and hope for the best? Or should I have it processed at 160 and try to fix any problems with PhotoShop?

- Piper L.

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ANSWER 2:
Piper, I wouldn't worry about it. That film can handle a bunch of overexposure. If your lab is worth their salt you probably won't even be able to see the difference in the prints. That's only a couple of stops. I've overexposed that stuff by 4 or 5 stops and didn't mention it to the lab and I couldn't tell the difference between the proofs.

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 3:
Jeff,
I have been learning all I can about Photography lately, but this push/pull thing confuses me, I have a hard time keeping up with which one is which. Please let me know if I have this right or backwards; To Push or overexpose film would be to have say, 400 Speed film in you camera, and have the film speed on the camera set at 200 speed. To Pull or underexpose, you would set the camera to 800 speed with the 400 speed film in it...is that correct? And one more thing, there are little places between the numbers, like this: 200 * * * 400 * * * 800 * * * on my Canon AE-1's film speed setting dial that you can set it to as well as the actual numbers, what are those? Is that the "stops" you are refering to? Forgive my ignorance on this subject, but I haven't gotten quite so far into my Photography studies that I have used this technique yet.
Your talking about this with Piper made me think to ask you about it.
Sorry to interupt Piper!
Thanks

- Carrie B.

ANSWER 4:
Sorry Carrie, you still have it backwards. When you push film you underexpose it and over-develop it (IOW take 200 speed film and set your camera for 400). When you pull film you over expose it and underdevelop it (IOW take 200 speed film and set your camera for 100).

A stop is one unit of light. When you add a stop you are doubling the light. When you subtract a stop you are cutting the light in half. If you have an exposure of 1/125 @ f8 and you want to add a stop of exposure (double the light) you could shoot it at 1/60 @ f8 or you could shoot at 1/125 @ f5.6.

The spaces in between your ISO settings are just in between ISO numbers like 250, 320, etc. They're so close to each other that if you get in the neighborhood you shouldn't have a problem. That's why they didn't go to the trouble and space to number them.

- Jeff K.

ANSWER 5:
Thanks Jeff! I told you I was confused! Thanks for clearing that up for me, I understand now! I still have so much to learn! Thanks for all your help!

- Carrie B.

ANSWER 6:
No problem. :-)))

- Jeff K.

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*****
CONTINUING QUESTION 2: International Freelance Photographers Organization
Is it worth getting the $100 gold press blah blah?

- edgar m.

ANSWER 1:
Edgar;

IFPO has to be one of the WORST organizations. I am a life time idiot, who forked over my hard earned cash, and have been kicking myself ever since.

Try your best to get hired as a stringer for a local paper, let them know what you'll need a credential for and most likely you will get where you want to go.

Also, get yourself a website like the one at BetterPhoto.com

Good luck and use that 100 on something else.

- Ric

ANSWER 2:
I too am a life time idiot - it's all about makeing money - for them. If you want to be serious about the organizations you join, consider PPA at www.ppa.com (Professional Photographers of America) or PSA (Photographic Society of America) both will send you a publication, and offer classes and contests, etc.

Good shooting!

- Barbara S.

ANSWER 3:
Thank you. I was looking for the answer to that question. The various websites referring to it looked suspicious enough that I went looking for recommendations.

- Inge R.

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