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SNAPSHOT - PHOTO NEWS FROM BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to SnapShot, the weekly newsletter on
the art of photography from
BetterPhoto.com


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IN THIS ISSUE - Tuesday, September 09, 2003
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* SPOTLIGHT: Got Great Photos? Show Them Off with a Deluxe BetterPholio™
* BETTERPHOTO: Bryan Peterson's New Art of Composition Online Course
* BETTERPHOTO: Jim Zuckerman Shows You How to Make Money with Your Photography
* BETTERPHOTO: Wildlife Photography Course Now Being Taught by Jim Zuckerman
* PHOTO TRIVIA QUESTION: Name that Film / Littering in Italy
* THIS WEEK'S TIP: Vigilance Pays Off - Tip by Jim Zuckerman
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 1: How Do I Thank Someone?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 2: Camera defect or malfunction
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 3: Film Speed
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 4: Relation Between Magnification and Lenses
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 5: Digital to 35mm Slide?
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 6: Beginning Basics
* NEW PHOTO Q&A 7: New Equipment
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 1: How to Color B&W Photos
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 2: Making Digital Negatives with Photoshop
* CONTINUING PHOTO Q&A 3: Why are My Pictures Blue?


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IN THE SPOTLIGHT - ADVERTISEMENT
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With a Deluxe BetterPholio™, you can show off up to 1000 of your best images, set up slide shows, and create the look and feel you want! Our Deluxe BetterPholio™ solutions give you a ONE STOP SHOP for getting your portfolio on the Web. What's more, people can search for your photos via a search engine! And if you opt for the Image Sales option, you can sell your images via the Internet! Learn more at:
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WHAT'S NEW AT BETTERPHOTO.COM
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Welcome to the 129th issue of SnapShot!

Hi

Three new classes! If you have not yet signed up for a course, take a look at our new additions to the line-up. One is on making money with your photography, one is on the art of composition, and one is on wildlife photography. I am really thrilled - we have a fantastic selection of courses for you this fall.

Deluxe BetterPholio™ owners: be careful when deleting your extra images. Understand that deleting images removes them from everywhere on both BetterPhoto and your Deluxe BetterPholio™.

As a reminder, I wanted to make sure you knew that we will be forced to raise our $195 online photo course prices to $237 in the January 2004 session. So now's your chance to get in on the old price. Note: a few of the new classes this fall, such as my Digital Photography course, are already priced at $237.

Even in January, these courses will be an extreme bargain. There is no better way to learn photography and when compared to on-location seminars and workshops, you just can't beat the price.

Almost forgot, by the time you read this, we will have the finalists from the August Photo Contest posted for your viewing enjoyment:
http://www.betterphoto.com/gallery/dynoGall2.asp?catID=2007

Have a fantastic week,
Jim Miotke
http://www.betterphoto.com/MG.asp?ID=124


*****
Bryan Peterson's New Art of Composition Online Course
Learn all about composition - the careful and deliberate arrangement of lines, shapes, and colors, in Bryan F. Peterson's intensive 8-week course. Bryan will teach you the best and most time-honored principles such as the Rule of Thirds, orientation, and moving in or out. His assignments will spark your creative imagination. What's more, he will finish up the course with a special lesson on getting the most out of the graduated neutral density filter. Space is limited: sign up today:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/BFP04.asp


*****
Jim Zuckerman Shows You How to Make Money with Your Photography
Have you ever dreamed of quitting your day job to become a full-time professional photographer? Jim Zuckerman has been marketing his work for 30 years, and he has been successful in many diverse markets. Join Jim in his new "Making Money with Your Photography", an online photography course which will take the mystery out of earning a full or part time income with your photographs:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JZK04.asp


*****
Wildlife Photography Course Now Being Taught by Jim Zuckerman
Jim Zuckerman will also be instructing our fall Wildlife Photography course. Particularly well-known for his wildlife work, Jim is the author of "Professional Photographer's Guide to Shooting and Selling Nature and Wildlife Photos," along with nine other great photography books! This course will give you the skills you need to capture those "once in a lifetime" wildlife moments. Topics include how to find wildlife, capturing dynamic portraits, being prepared for action, shooting macro wildlife, and more:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JZK05.asp

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PHOTO TRIVIA QUIZ OF THE WEEK
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Last week, we asked:
In which movie does an older man misrepresent himself by sending his potential bride a self-portrait taken when he was 20 years younger?

The first, best answer - entered by BetterPhoto member Jim Miotkeis:
Picture Bride (I knew this would be a challenging one).

See Jim's Premium BetterPholio™:
http://www.betterphoto.com/sites4photogs/dynoMG.asp?memberID=124

To see all answers to this question, visit:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp?stat=PRV

And Now... This Week's Photo Trivia Question - Littering in Italy - entered by BetterPhoto member Jim Miotke

Why does the character George Emerson toss Lucy Honeychurch's photographs into the river in A Room With A View?

Submit your own answer to this question by visiting:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/trivia.asp

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THIS WEEK'S PHOTO TIP
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Vigilance Pays Off - Tip by Jim Zuckerman
When photographing anything that moves, such as wildlife and people, keep your eyes glued to the viewfinder. Don't wait for a peak moment and then put the camera to your face and expect to get the shot -- you may be too late. Fractions of a second can mean capturing a great image or missing it.

And if you snap the shutter at the wrong moment, don't take your eyes away from the viewfinder and express your frustration to the friend next to you. In those few seconds, you might miss the best shot of the day.

To learn more, check out Jim's Wildlife Photography class:
http://www.betterphoto.com/photocourses/JZK05.asp

Top Ten Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/tips.asp

All Tips:
http://www.betterphoto.com/exploring/allTips.asp

Add Your Own Tip:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/login.asp?category=tip&inputType=tip

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ADVERTISEMENT
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Absolute Beginner's Guide to Taking Great Photos
My new book guides you away from the point-and-pray method of taking pictures to shooting with confidence. In this simple and clear how-to book, you will learn:

  • How to compose your picture with a more artful eye
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You can order this book online, call our toll-free order processing number 1-888-927-9992, or simply send a check or money order for USD $16.90 (or USD$18.90 if shipping to Canada or USD$24.90 to other international addresses) to:

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To order online, visit:
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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - NEW THIS WEEK
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NEW QUESTION 1: How Do I Thank Someone?
Hi, I got some good advise from Brenda Tharp and I was wondering how to send her a thank by email?

Thank you
- Lori Rockwell

ANSWER 1:
Hi Lori,

The best way is to go back to your original questions that they anwered, click on the Respond to This Question link. It will add what your note to the discussion thread, as well as automatically email anyone who has asked or answered that particular question.

If you have difficulty finding this question or discussion, we've got a great new feature on BetterPhoto that you can use to help you locate this items. If you click on the Sign In button at the bottom of the filmstrip (left side of the BetterPhoto home page), once you type in your email address you will see all the photo discussions, questions you've asked, answers you've given, etc. It is also a handy place to go to get to any BetterPhoto online courses you are taking, or to get to the Admin centers of you Premium BetterPholio™ or Deluxe BetterPholio™.

Alternatively, you can click on Brenda's name to be taken to her BetterPhoto Premium BetterPholio™ - there you will find a contact page for sending her an email.
- Jim at BetterPhoto.com

See Jim Miotke's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Jim Miotke's Deluxe BetterPholio™ - Miotke.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Jim Miotke:
Jim Miotke's Online Photography Classes

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6688

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6688

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*****


NEW QUESTION 2: Camera defect or malfunction
My friend has a Canon EOS 650 and when film is processed half of the picture is missing. He doesn't recall if it is the top or bottom portion. I have heard of such a problem but do not remember the cause of this fault. Please advise.
- Robert H. Dyslin

ANSWER 1:
Robert - it sounds to me as if the shutter curtain is sticking, or broken. That's when you'll get only half an image. Or, if your friend was using flash, the shutter speed was set higher than the flash can sync to.
Hope this helps!
- Brenda Tharp

See Brenda Tharp's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Brenda Tharp's Web Site - BrendaTharp.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Brenda Tharp:
Creating Visual Impact
Beyond the Postcard: Travel Photography

ANSWER 2:
Thanks Brenda for your speedy reply. Is this an expensive repair procedure? Can you suggest a repair facility in the Tampa/ St. Pete, Fl area, or an out of town mailing address? I had never heard of this model before and will try to find some professional reviews about its spot in the history of SLR's. One of my cameras is the Canon AE-1 Program which I purchased new many years ago. Just recently I cleaned and oiled it as best as I could and it seems to work very well. A more recent aquisition is my Nikon N65. I am making a feeble attempt to self learn both digital and film photography useing my Olympus C 700 and Canon A70 and Olympus 510 digital cameras. I much prefer the digital cameras since I really don't have much interest or need for prints but instead enjoy the slide shows on computer. Thanks again, Bob Dyslin Ocala, FL
- Robert H. Dyslin

ANSWER 3:
I don't know of a local reputable place near you, but you might suggest to you friend to send it to Canon directly, or to call around to find out what repair shops are authorized Canon repair centers. Wish I could help more, but that's all. I use Canon Pro Services for my repairs, but I'm enrolled in their Pro program...Good luck!
- Brenda Tharp

See Brenda Tharp's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Brenda Tharp's Web Site - BrendaTharp.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Brenda Tharp:
Creating Visual Impact
Beyond the Postcard: Travel Photography

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6684

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6684

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NEW QUESTION 3: Film Speed
I'm going to shoot a wedding for the first time. I'm really nervous about it. I'm not a pro at photograpy but have been told many times I'm very good at it. My question is... what film speed should I use when shooting the wedding? I would appreciate any help you can offer. Thank you.
- Lori Rockwell

ANSWER 1:
Hi Lori - this is a loaded question! First, will you be allowed to use flash inside during the ceremony? If not, you'll need to use a high speed film, such as a 400 or 800 ISO. If you can use flash, and are using print film, I'd suggest using high speed film anyway, so that you can bring up the ambient light around the people. But, when you go outside to do any portraits, etc., that film will be too fast, so you'll either have to use two camera bodies, and switch between them, or pull the fast film out and put in slower film, something in the 100-200 range.

Hope this helps, and good luck with this, your first!
- Brenda Tharp

See Brenda Tharp's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Brenda Tharp's Web Site - BrendaTharp.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Brenda Tharp:
Creating Visual Impact
Beyond the Postcard: Travel Photography

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6683

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6683

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*****


NEW QUESTION 4: Relation Between Magnification and Lenses
Which is the relation between the zoom in the cameras (3x, 4x...) and the mm in the lenses? For example, how much magnification is the 300mm lens?
- John Lopez

ANSWER 1:
It is the relationship between the standard 1:1 lens, which, on a 35mm film camera is usually 50 or 55mm, and the zoom. A 100mm is 2x, a 200 is 4x, and your 300 would be 6x.
- Wayne Attridge

ANSWER 2:
Just to thoroughly confuse you... ;)

Dividing the lens focal length by 50 give the apparent magnification, ie. what you'll see in the viewfinder. It is similar to the magnification spec given for binoculars.

This is different than the magnification ratio that is sometimes given for a lens that measures the relationship between the size of the image within the 24mm x 36mm film frame to the object's actual size. Close focusing macro lenses give this magnification as a ratio, such as 1:2 for 1/2 life-size, 1:1 for life size, 2:1 for two times life-size (2x), etc. This magnification is not directly related to focal length, but is more a function of how close the lens can focus. 1:1 macro lens can be 50mm, 100mm, 180mm, etc.

Finally, some zoom lenses are loosely referred to as "2x" or "3x" etc. This is not measure of the magnification possible with the zoom, but refers to the focal length range from wide to tele. For example, a 28-80 zoom is called a 3x zoom (80 divided by 28 = 2.86 rounded to 3).
- Jon Close

ANSWER 3:
Jon is right. I hadn't thought of the lens zoom ratio issue when I read your question, but the 300mm will still be 6x magnification. The zoom lens number; i.e. 3x zoom would be used for a 28-80mm and a 70-210mm lens. I know. Now you wished you had never asked.
- Wayne Attridge

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http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6678

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NEW QUESTION 5: Digital to 35mm Slide?
I have and use a Canon EOS 10D but that is beside the point. I only own digital cameras and up until now I have said they can do it all just as well as film. Here is the problem, my daughter is modeling and I did her portfolio. They have an upcoming showcase and they need a 35mm slide of her headshot. It needs to be as good as the original photo. How would I go about doing this? I have been searching for answers on this for a while now. Are my only options just a photo of a photograph?
- Rebecca M. Gold

See Rebecca's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 1:
If the image was shot full resolution in the Canon 10D, you should have enough of a file size to pull this off. Call IQ imaging at 1-800-296-1885 and see if they can work with your digital image. Businesses come and go these days; if they're not there, go to google.com and enter a search for something like digital images convert to film.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6669

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6669

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*****


NEW QUESTION 6: Beginning Basics
I am currently taking a photography class at a university and the professor is going over my head. I am confused about shutter speed and f-stops. What speed goes with which f-stop? My camera that I am using has dials where you manually select both the f-stop and shutter speed. Is there some chart or graph out there that I can consult to tell me for instance, if I want to take a picture where the background is fuzzy but the subject is in focus, which f-stop and shutter speed to use?
- Katie Black

ANSWER 1:
Maybe this analogy will work as well for you as it did for me when I was learning. The shutter is a door that opens and slams shut for varying precisely timed intervals. The aperture is a pipe to let light through, of diameters of precise size.

The film is saying to you, hey, Katie, I want a specific amount of light to give you a negative that will print for you. When you set the ASA setting on my package, you agreed on the amount of light you're gonna give me. I don't care whether you dribble the light to me through a tiny aperture (hole) or squeeze a little through at a time with a fast shutter. You can let a big burst through a huge aperture, or let in a lot through a slow shutter. The amount of light the film wants is a COMBINATION of shutter and aperture. The aperture and shutter are two sides of an equation. Whatever I do to one side, I must do something to the other.

1/500 sec is a fast shutter speed. We use fast shutters to stop action. It doesn't let in much light. I must compensate on the other side by opening the aperture wider to make up for the tiny amount of light I let in through the fast shutter.

f16 is a really tiny aperture. More of the objects in the depth of your image will be in focus at small apertures. If I let in so little light through a tiny hole, I must make up for it with a slower shutter to let in a bit more.

The light meter in your camera is there to tell you how much to compensate on one side or the other. Share this post with others in your class who need it.
- Doug Nelson

Visit DougNelsonPhoto.com - Doug's Deluxe BetterPholio™

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6665

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6665

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*****


NEW QUESTION 7: New Equipment
I am interested in buying a simple Nikon FM10 for its total manual abilities. I own two lenses made by Quantaray that I have collected with my current Pentax. Both are autofocus lenses. Will those lenses work with the manual camera? Where can I get an adapter ring? What will that do to my pictures?
- Beth Ramsey

ANSWER 1:
I don't know of any adaptors for fitting a Pentax K-mount lens to a Nikon body. The FM10 is in most all respects a Nikon version of the Pentax K1000. Why not just get a K1000 or ZX-M to use with your current lenses if you're wanting to go full manual?
- Jon Close

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6658

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6658

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PHOTOGRAPHY Q&A - CONTINUING FROM PREVIOUS NEWSLETTER
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CONTINUING QUESTION 1: How to Color B&W Photos
Hello, I was wanting to know what software you could recommend for altering digital photos. I have 3 small children and am having fun playing with my pictures. I really love the looks of b&w photos with something in the photo that is colored like say a pink umbrella or blue eyes and everything else b&w. Could you give me some direction?

Thanks
Teri mom of 3
- Teri F. Inman

ANSWER 1:
Teri,

Almost all digital imaging programs will allow you to do this. Each program has a different way, depending on it's features. Programs such as Adobe Photoshop Elements and JASC PaintShopPro are tow fairly inexpensive programs that will allow this.
- Lewis Kemper

See Lewis Kemper's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Lewis Kemper's Web Site - LewisKemper.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Lewis Kemper:
Large Format Photography
Photographer's Toolbox for Photoshop®: Toolbox #1

ANSWER 2:
HI Lewis, Thanks for the response. So you are saying that maybe the soft ware that came with my digital camera might have this feature?It is a photo editing component but I couldn`t seem to find any special filters or tools that will change color in b&w. Will look closer at it. Thanks for the help.
- Teri F. Inman

ANSWER 3:
Adobe Photoshop is the mother of all softwares for photos!...

Yes I have seen that modality of "painting" your B&W in Adobe elemnts; I think is around $ 70.00 usd!...

Now that if you want the mother of all softwares get Adobe Photoshop 7, at the moderate price of around $700.00 usd.
- Leo Enriquez

ANSWER 4:
Teri if your images started out as B&W the 2 best ways to color them is first to convert them to RGB if they are grayscale.

Then depending on software either set the blend mode of the brush to color, select your color and paint or create a Hue/saturation adjustment layer. Click the colorize button. Adjust the Hue/Sat to create a color you want. Fill the layer with Black and paint with white where you want to apply the color.

If you start with color images and want to give the selected handcolor look. You first create an adjustment layer to remove the color. I suggest Channel Mixer or if not supported Hue/Saturation. Remove the color and then paint with black while the adjustment layer is active to put the color back in.

Both these techniques work with Adobe Photoshop® or JASC Paintshop Pro.
- Lewis Kemper

See Lewis Kemper's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Lewis Kemper's Web Site - LewisKemper.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Lewis Kemper:
Large Format Photography
Photographer's Toolbox for Photoshop®: Toolbox #1

ANSWER 5:
Thankyou Leo and Lewis. You make it sound so easy Lewis, guess I will need some time to play around with my software.....I`m my little world I was picturing a button you could just click to change the color of things lol lol.

Leo, thanks for the info on the software but 600is a little steep for me.

Thanks to you both *smile*
- Teri F. Inman

ANSWER 6:
As far as price of PS7. If you have any relative enrolled in college have them buy you the software. It is half price and even though it says Educational Version, it is the same!
- Lewis Kemper

See Lewis Kemper's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Lewis Kemper's Web Site - LewisKemper.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Lewis Kemper:
Large Format Photography
Photographer's Toolbox for Photoshop®: Toolbox #1

ANSWER 7:
I thought Photoshop was a bit steeply priced myself. My dad had me try Microsoft picture-it which came with my computer so didn't cost me anything extra. With picture-it it is very easy to convert color to black and white and colorize b&w. If you have Microsoft Works, check to see if you also have Picture-It.
- Jennifer S. Becker

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6640

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6640

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*****


CONTINUING QUESTION 2: Making Digital Negatives with Photoshop
I have been trying to find a method of taking a digital image, edit in Photoshop, make the image a negative in the software app, then print to a transparency of some kind. Then take the Negative Transparency and use it in the dark room to create a contact print or place in the enlarger to make a larger print. Please provide any solutions you have heard of or the feesability of this.
- Christopher Higdon

See Christopher's Premium BetterPholio™

ANSWER 1:
Christopher, most people who are doing this are having the negatives output on Linotype typesetters. There is a great book by Dan Burkholder entitled "Making Digital Negatives for Contact Printing" check out his web site at www.danburkholder.com.
- Lewis Kemper

See Lewis Kemper's Premium BetterPholio™
Visit Lewis Kemper's Web Site - LewisKemper.com

Take an Online PhotoCourse™ with Lewis Kemper:
Large Format Photography
Photographer's Toolbox for Photoshop®: Toolbox #1

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
http://www.betterphoto.com/forms/qnaDetail.asp?threadID=6634

Answer this question:
http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6634

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*****


CONTINUING QUESTION 3: Why are My Pictures Blue?
I don't have any model information about my Sony digital camera, but wanted to ask if anyone might be able to provide some insight. When I attempt to take pictures outdoors (in sunlight, snow, etc.) my pictures develop with a blue overcast. When I use the same camera for indoor shots, they turn out fine. What would possibly cause this? Is this an indication that something mechanical might be wrong with the camera or with the user - me?
- Vikki Grant

ANSWER 1:
Look in your maual under white balance. This should give you the answer you need. White balance is basicly the way your camera responds to the color temperature of the light conditions your shooting under.
- Judith A. Clark

ANSWER 2:
Judith is right. You probably either have the camera set for the wrong white balance. Even film has to be balanced for the conditions you are shooting in. If indoor WB is used outdoors, you get a bluish tint. If outdoor used indoors, you get yellow/orangey tint and under florescent bulbs you get a greenish tint.

Check your manual under white balance to know how to change it. Most people just leave it under Auto which usually gives a sufficient exposure but may still be off. Do not despair though as you can make changes for existing pictures in programs like Photoshop, Elements, Paint Shop Pro or many others that let you correct the colour of a photo. It will fix it to a more natural color.

The ideal of course is to either do a manual WB (if your camera allows it) or use any preset WB but if you do not want to bother or keep forgetting to change it, Auto WB will still usually be good enough.
- Michael Kaplan

ANSWER 3:
Its best you use CORRECTION filters such as TIFFEN, HOLLYWOOD/FX or B+W FOR DETAILS check out www.adorama.com and also e-mail them about your problem----info@adorama.com they have a COMPLETE line of excellent filters for any video enthusiast.
- Buddy Purugganan

ANSWER 4:
One of the cool things about a digital camera is you really don't need correction filters if you are setting a custom white balance or using one of the presets appropriate for the condition, sunny, cloudy, ambient, etc. I've often created my own digital filters to produce a certain effect by creating a "faux" white balance, for example if I wanted my pics to have a funky greenish appearance in a daylight situation, I simply put a pink/magenta card in front of my lens when setting the white balance. The rule of complements applies when setting the white balance. Whatever color cast you "want" to introduce can be created by shooting at the oppisite color for the WB. The WB is attempting to compensate or neutralize the conditional color of the card by introducing its complementary color, so it basically produces a "filter" Just like in Photoshop if you have a "magenta" color cast in the mids & highlights, you can rid that cast by targeting the mids & highs using a Color Balance Adjustment layer and move the Magenta/Green slider bar more towards the green; to the point where it "neutralizes" the cast....or if you want to get crazy..move it all the way to green and the green takes over.
- Ms. Shan Canfield

Read this Q&A at BetterPhoto.com:
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http://www.betterphoto.com/QnAredirect.asp?threadID=6388

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Until next week, happy shooting!

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Jim Miotke
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